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Water 2019, 11(3), 524; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030524

Crucian Carp (Carassius carassius) Strongly Affect C/N/P Stoichiometry of Suspended Particulate Matter in Shallow Warm Water Eutrophic Lakes

1
State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geograph and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
2
National Demonstration Center for Experimental Fisheries Science Education, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China
3
Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, 8600 Silkeborg, Denmark
4
Sino-Danish Centre for Education and Research, Beijing 100049, China
5
Department of Ecology and Institute of Hydrobiology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 January 2019 / Revised: 7 March 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trophic Interactions in Warm Freshwater Ecosystems)
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Abstract

Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) is a key fish species in most Chinese subtropical and tropical shallow lakes. Through sediment feeding, crucian carp could greatly change water turbidity and nutrient levels, as well as the abundance of herbivorous consumers, which may have important influences on seston element stoichiometry. However, so far, experimental studies on this topic are lacking. We conducted a 36-day mesocosm experiment to explore the effects of crucian carp on water physicochemical and biological properties, and C/N/P ratios in suspended particulate matter (SPM) under eutrophic conditions. Our results provided three major findings: (1) Crucian carp resuspended sediments and along with them, reduced light penetration and lower light/total phosphorus (TP) ratios. (2) Crucian carp reduced biomasses of both zooplankton and macrozoobenthos, whereas their effect on phytoplankton was weak, potentially because of resuspension-induced light limitation. (3) Both C/P and N/P ratios in SPM were significant lower in mesocosms with crucian carp than in fish-free controls, which may be attributed to the high contribution of P-rich sediments and low light to nutrient supply caused by fish-induced resuspension. Our results suggest that besides planktivorous fish, benthivore (e.g., crucian carp) in warm shallow waters could also affect pelagic C/N/P stoichiometry via sediment feeding, which may further influence energy transfer efficiency in lake food chain. View Full-Text
Keywords: crucian carp; C/N/P stoichiometry; suspended particulate matter; eutrophication; shallow lakes crucian carp; C/N/P stoichiometry; suspended particulate matter; eutrophication; shallow lakes
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He, H.; Han, Y.; Li, Q.; Jeppesen, E.; Li, K.; Yu, J.; Liu, Z. Crucian Carp (Carassius carassius) Strongly Affect C/N/P Stoichiometry of Suspended Particulate Matter in Shallow Warm Water Eutrophic Lakes. Water 2019, 11, 524.

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