Next Article in Journal
Urban Watercourses in Peril: Implications of Phthalic Acid Esters on Aquatic Ecosystems Caused by Urban Sprawl
Next Article in Special Issue
An Optimal Allocation Model for Large Complex Water Resources System Considering Water supply and Ecological Needs
Previous Article in Journal
Flood Resilience of Critical Infrastructure: Approach and Method Applied to Fort Lauderdale, Florida
Previous Article in Special Issue
Application of an Integrated SWAT–MODFLOW Model to Evaluate Potential Impacts of Climate Change and Water Withdrawals on Groundwater–Surface Water Interactions in West-Central Alberta
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessTechnical Note

Water Footprint and Water Pinch Analysis in Ethanol Industrial Production for Water Management

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Qingdao 250100, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(3), 518;
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 7 March 2019 / Accepted: 9 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
PDF [2415 KB, uploaded 15 March 2019]


Fuel ethanol is considered to be a clean alternative fuel to meet increasing energy demands and mitigate environmental pollution. Faced with challenges in terms of energy security and environmental pollution, China is vigorously developing fuel ethanol. However, ethanol-manufacturing is a water-intensive industry; it consumes large volumes of fresh water and generates a corresponding amount of waste water. Expansion of this industry can reduce water quality and cause water stress. This study aims to combine the water footprint (WF) with a water pinch analysis technique to manage water consumption and sewage discharge systematically in an ethanol plant. A well-operated cassava ethanol plant in China was chosen as a case study. The WF of industrial ethanol production was evaluated. The total WF was 17.08 L/L ethanol, comprised of a 7.69 L blue water footprint (BWF), and a 9.39 L gray water footprint (GWF). The direct WF was 16.38 L/L ethanol, and the indirect WF was 0.70 L/L ethanol. Thereafter, a water pinch analysis was conducted, and the optimal direct water reuse scheme was studied. After the water network was optimized, the BWF was reduced by 0.98 L/L ethanol, while the GWF was reduced by 1.47 L/L ethanol. These results indicate that the combined use of WF and pinch analysis can provide the starch-based ethanol industry with an effective tool to improve its water management. View Full-Text
Keywords: ethanol production; water footprint; water pinch analysis; water management ethanol production; water footprint; water pinch analysis; water management

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, H.; Ren, L.; Zhuo, H.; Fu, S. Water Footprint and Water Pinch Analysis in Ethanol Industrial Production for Water Management. Water 2019, 11, 518.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top