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An Analysis of the Effectiveness of Two Rainwater Harvesting Systems Located in Central Eastern Europe

Department of Infrastructure and Water Management, Rzeszow University of Technology, al. Powstańców Warszawy 12, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland
Institute of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Kosice, Vysokoskolska 4, 042 00 Kosice, Slovakia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(3), 458;
Received: 11 January 2019 / Revised: 21 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
PDF [2236 KB, uploaded 5 March 2019]


Decentralized water systems are perceived as solutions that not only save water, but also as a way to partially or completely become independent from centralized suppliers. Taking this into account, an analysis of the effectiveness of rainwater harvesting systems (RWHS) for toilet flushing in existing academic facilities located in Poland and in Slovakia was carried out. The tests took into account the different volumes of storage tanks collecting rainwater. On the basis of two financial ratios, namely Net Present Value and Discounted Payback Period, the profitability of these systems was also assessed. The research was extended by the sensitivity analysis, which allowed determination of the impact of changes in individual cost components on the financial effectiveness of the investments considered. The results obtained clearly showed that the implementation of RWHS in the dormitory in Rzeszów was unprofitable for all tank capacities tested, and the payback period significantly exceeded the period of 30 years accepted for the analysis. Completely different results were obtained for RWHS in a dormitory located in the city of Košice, for which the financial ratios NPV (Net Present Value) and DPP (Discounted Payback Period) were very favorable. It was also confirmed by the results of the sensitivity analysis. The use of rainwater for toilet flushing caused that it was possible to achieve water savings of an average of 29% and 18%, respectively, for facilities located in Slovakia and Poland. The results of the research have a practical aspect and can provide an indication for potential investors and managers of academic facilities, similar to those analyzed in the article. Taking into account that in many countries water and sewage rates are significantly higher than in Poland and Slovakia, the cost-effectiveness of using the analyzed installation options in these countries could be even higher. View Full-Text
Keywords: rainwater harvesting; alternative water sources; toilet flushing; financial analysis rainwater harvesting; alternative water sources; toilet flushing; financial analysis

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Stec, A.; Zeleňáková, M. An Analysis of the Effectiveness of Two Rainwater Harvesting Systems Located in Central Eastern Europe. Water 2019, 11, 458.

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