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Water 2019, 11(2), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020296

Impacts of Antecedent Soil Moisture on the Rainfall-Runoff Transformation Process Based on High-Resolution Observations in Soil Tank Experiments

1,2
and
1,2,*
1
State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
2
College of Water Resources and Hydrology, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 January 2019 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 5 February 2019 / Published: 9 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
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Abstract

An experimental soil tank (12 m long × 1.5 m wide × 1.5 m deep) equipped with a spatially distributed instrument network was designed to conduct the artificial rainfall-runoff experiments. Soil moisture (SM), precipitation, surface runoff (SR) and subsurface runoff (SSR) were continuously monitored. A total of 32 rainfall-runoff events were analyzed to investigate the non-linear patterns of rainfall-runoff response and estimate the impact of antecedent soil moisture (ASM) on runoff formation. Results suggested that ASM had a significant impact on runoff at this plot scale, and a moisture threshold-like value which was close to field capacity existed in the relationship between soil water content and event-based runoff coefficient (φe), SSR and SSR/SR. A non-linear relationship between antecedent soil moisture index (ASI) that represented the initial storage capacity of the soil tank and total runoff was also observed. Response times of SR and SM to rainfall showed a marked variability under different conditions. Under wet conditions, SM at 10 cm started to increase prior to SR on average, whereas it responds slower than SR under dry conditions due to the effect of water repellency. The predominant contributor to SR generation for all events is the Hortonian overland flow (HOF). There is a hysteretic behavior between subsurface runoff flow and soil moisture with a switch in the hysteretic loop direction based on the wetness conditions prior to the event. View Full-Text
Keywords: soil moisture (SM); non-linear; response time; water repellency soil moisture (SM); non-linear; response time; water repellency
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Song, S.; Wang, W. Impacts of Antecedent Soil Moisture on the Rainfall-Runoff Transformation Process Based on High-Resolution Observations in Soil Tank Experiments. Water 2019, 11, 296.

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