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Open AccessArticle

Commercial Tanker Water Demand in Amman, Jordan—A Spatial Simulation Model of Water Consumption Decisions under Intermittent Network Supply

1
Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research—UFZ, Permoser Str. 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany
2
Faculty of Economics and Business Management, Institute of Infrastructure and Resources Management, Leipzig University, Grimmaische Str. 12, 04109 Leipzig, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(2), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020254
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Socioeconomic Indicators for Sustainable Water Management)
The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is confronted with a severe freshwater crisis shaped by excess water demand and intermittent public supply. In Jordan’s capital and most populous city, Amman, the pervasive water shortage gave rise to private tanker water operations, which transport groundwater from wells in the vicinity of the city and sell it to urban consumers. These tanker water markets have received little attention in the literature up to date, particularly with regard to their relevance for commercial water users. This paper aims to empirically estimate the water demand of commercial establishments in Amman under public supply rationing and to assess to which extent tanker operations contribute to meeting commercial water needs. Building on a prior simulation model of residential water consumption, the results of three extensive surveys concerned with tanker water markets and various geographic data, we develop a spatial agent-based model of the water consumption behavior of commercial establishments in different sizes. According to our estimation, 35–45% of the overall water volume consumed by the commercial sector stems from tanker operations, depending on the season. We find that the local disparities in access to affordable network water, along with the dispersion of groundwater wells around the city, result in considerable spatial differences in tanker water consumption. The outcome of this analysis could be relevant for policy attempting to enhance freshwater sustainability in Jordan. View Full-Text
Keywords: freshwater sustainability; commercial water consumption; intermittent supply; tanker water; agent-based modeling freshwater sustainability; commercial water consumption; intermittent supply; tanker water; agent-based modeling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zozmann, H.; Klassert, C.; Sigel, K.; Gawel, E.; Klauer, B. Commercial Tanker Water Demand in Amman, Jordan—A Spatial Simulation Model of Water Consumption Decisions under Intermittent Network Supply. Water 2019, 11, 254.

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