1.2. California, United States
1.3. Queensland, Australia
2. Materials and Methods
3.1.1. Framing of Technology in The Straits Times
State-of-the Art Technology
Focusing on the End-Product (Rather Than the Source Water)
3.1.2. Framing of Potable Reused Water Technology by Leaders and Experts
Why Potable Reused Water?
3.2.1. Framing of Technology in the Los Angeles Times and the Orange County Register
Cleanliness of End-Product
3.2.2. Framing of Potable Reused Water Technology by Leaders and Experts
3.3.1. Framing of Technology in The Courier-Mail
Scepticism of the Integrity of the Technology
Focusing on the Source Water
3.3.2. Framing of Potable Reused Water Technology by Leaders and Experts
Lack of Support
4. Discussions and Conclusions
5. Lessons Learnt
Conflicts of Interest
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|21 January 2001||In the pipeline: More recycled water plants||At the NEWater plant, water is treated by three processes: microfiltration, reverse osmosis and ultraviolet filtration.|
|13 January 2001||Recycling to meet 15% of water needs by 2010||High costs had hampered recycling efforts. But no longer, now that new technology is producing superior filters and membranes that make it economical to recycle water on a large scale.|
|11 March 2003||Overseas firms thirst for NEWater’s ultra-pure success; Singapore’s unique combination of three refining processes draws great interest from the US and countries in the region||This is a three-stage process that has won kudos worldwide. It comprises filtering out elements - bacteria, viruses, solids - passing the water through a semi-permeable membrane, and then exposing it to ultraviolet light. Particles smaller than one-thousandth the thickness of a human hair are removed. Only after that is the water sent to reservoirs and companies.|
|28 January 2004||SembCorp keen to build NEWater plant||The company believes that it is ‘well-positioned’ to undertake the project, given its technical, operational and management expertise in water-recycling and wastewater treatment, he said.|
|22 March 2006||Water supplied by technology, not nature||Theoretically, the sky’s the limit, as recycling ensures an ‘almost infinite supply’ of water going around the same water chain.|
|6 June 2007||Race is on for green ways to treat water; S’pore to play key role with industry leaders wanting to learn from its success||They were speaking on the second day of the fourth IWA Leading-Edge Conference, which brings together more than 300 leaders in the industry to showcase cutting-edge technologies and techniques. These include more efficient membrane filters, reactors which harness energy—producing bacteria from waste water, and nanotechnology systems which make treatment quicker and cheaper.|
|27 October 2007||NEWater-type plant ready in Queensland||As Singapore is one of a few countries in the world to employ water reclamation technology, its water management model was the inspiration behind Western Australia’s massive water recycling project.|
|1 September 2011||S’pore hands over Johor waterworks; Republic gives up right to draw water from area on expiry of 1961 pact||Yesterday’s handover, though, has no impact on Singapore’s ability to secure enough water to meet its daily demand of 380 million gallons. |
That is because the resulting shortfall has been more than made up for by new reservoirs here and technological improvements in recycling and desalinating water.
|14 March 2013||Deep sewerage tunnel to extend to west of S’pore; Work on underground 18km ‘super highway’, costing $3b, to start in 2016||At the recycling plants, the water goes through a series of screens to remove debris, then a bioreactor where micro-organisms break down impurities and organic waste. It also goes through two sedimentation tanks where particles are allowed to settle. |
What comes out will either be pumped 5km out into the deep sea, or be further purified to produce NEWater.
|9 August 2015||Bottled wonder||Within six months, the PUB had pioneered a technique superior to that of the US. Instead of using one or two methods, which was what the Americans did, Singapore used three: microfiltration, reverse osmosis and ultraviolet radiation.|
|22 March 2016||The celebration of World Water Day||Primitive water rationing has given way to technologically produced NEWater.|
|23 March 2016||Water world: A look at 5 reservoirs in Singapore||NEWater is high-grade reclaimed water that undergoes many rounds of treatment with advanced membrane technologies and ultra-violet disinfection until it is potable.|
|23 June 2016||PUB calls tender for expansion of Changi Water Reclamation Plant||After expansion, it will continue to be compact and use advanced technologies, said the PUB.|
|10 July 2016||How Singapore will never go thirsty||Singapore’s DTSS is a marvel of modern engineering, allowing us to efficiently convey a whole country’s worth of sewage at minimal expense. It is also a terrific example of how science and new technology, combined with ingenuity and determination, have allowed us to greatly reduce the cost of water husbandry.|
|18 September 2016||What’s next after NEWater||Welcome to the incredible world of membrane technology. It works because the filter does the job at the molecular level, separating actual particles of water from the rest.|
|19 January 2017||$170m fifth NEWater plant launched||‘While PUB has managed its costs over the year through improvements in productivity and technology, much of the incremental improvements have already been reaped,’ he said.|
|2 March 2017||Securing Singapore’s water future||Since then, water technology has progressed steadily. PUB itself invested in R&D. This resulted in NEWater, which was much cheaper than desalination.|
|2 March 2017||Securing Singapore’s water future||Technologically, Singapore has squeezed everything it can from the current water processing technology.|
|12 March 2017||Keeping Singapore’s taps flowing in the quest for a robust water supply||In California, water managers are adapting a technology refined in Singapore—the membrane bioreactor—to treat industrial waste water and use the treated water to directly replenish the water-stressed state’s freshwater aquifers instead of discharging it into the sea.|
|12 March 2017||Feeling the heat after drying up of ‘water is precious’ message||Thankfully, Singapore pressed ahead, not only with desalination—the first plant to purify sea water was embarked on soon afterwards and completed in 2005—but also by harnessing the technology to reclaim used water in 2003.|
|23 June 2017||PUB calls tender for expansion of Changi Water Reclamation Plant||Commissioned in 2008, Changi WRP (Water Reclamation Plant) is one of the largest and most advanced water reclamation facilities in the world. It treats about half of Singapore’s used water, and produces treated effluent which is used to produce the ultra-clean, high-grade NEWater.|
|18 July 2017||Singapore to beef up research into water technologies with international partners||The other agreement, between PUB and Western Australia’s Water Corporation, will boost collaboration in the fields of urban water supply, waste water management and innovation.|
|16 January 2018||PUB sets aside up to $30m for water treatment solutions||Announcing this yesterday, it invited industry technology providers and researchers to develop solutions that will improve the effectiveness of Singapore’s water treatment processes and operations, and ensure water sustainability.|
|26 August 2007||Revisiting ‘toilet to tap’||This is because modern water-purification technology is considered totally reliable.|
|18 May 2008||Tapping into the future||Recycling technology has improved. Orange County has already started recycling water for indirect potable reuse.|
|4 February 2014||Don’t gag: It’s time for L.A. to embrace ‘toilet to tap’ water||Our neighbors have invested in the technology. Orange County reclaims 70 million gallons of sewage daily, with plans to treat even more.|
|24 May 2015||Turning sewage into drinking water gains appeal as drought lingers||In potable reuse systems, effluent from a wastewater treatment plant is sent to an advanced treatment facility, where it undergoes a three-step purification process.|
|22 September 2015||Metropolitan Water District aims to build plant to recycle sewage into drinking water||The plan would thrust Los Angeles County to the forefront of a small but growing number of areas embracing ‘toilet to tap’ technology to meet the water needs of their residents.|
|22 September 2015||California seeks to build one of world’s largest recycled water programs||Potable reuse systems, on the other hand, use a variety of methods to purify water that has already been processed at a sewage treatment facility. The end result of this “toilet to tap” process is a substance that is cleaner than most bottled waters, and is intended for human consumption.|
|23 September 2015||EDITORIAL: MWD’s water recycling plan is a good one, but don’t call it ‘toilet to tap’||Steadily advancing technology may allow the MWD to purify water cheaply and efficiently on the surface.|
|3 November 2015||Planned purification plant would eliminate need for imported water, officials say||It would take water from a nearby sewage treatment facility and, using advanced procedures such as reverse osmosis, purify that water to meet or exceed drinking water standards.|
|19 May 2017||COLUMN: As political pressure for approval intensifies, the case for a big desalination plant remains cloudy||Recycled water would cost the county as little as $1200 per acre-foot|
|2 March 2000||Water plan sinking as cost climbs; COUNTY: Price estimate for a sewage-purification system rises to $ 600 million.||The water district and the Orange County Sanitation District have jointly studied the “toilet to tap” idea since 1997 as a way to meet growing demand, reduce the need for imported water and avoid building an ocean sewage outfall.|
|30 September 2000||Reclaimed water gets into Newport supply||Reclaimed water begins as sewage that is filtered and treated at a waste-water treatment plant, Wildermuth said. The reclaimed water that entered the drinking-water system had been treated again to remove any remaining bacteria and viruses. That process includes adding chlorine and other cleansing chemicals and filtering the water through charcoal and sand, Wildermuth said.|
|8 August 2002||City’s reclaimed water making its way indoors||Recycled water, by the way, is the water that drains from your showers, sinks and toilets. It is not storm drain water or runoff.|
The sewage is sent to the district reclamation plant on Michelson, where it is filtered, disinfected and treated with microscopic organisms that consume bacteria.
It takes the district 12 to 15 h to treat the water and redistribute it. About 15 million gallons of reclaimed water are produced each day—20 percent of IRWD’s total water supply.
|17 June 2005||Water pipeline project to impact traffic; The $4.5 million water district project will connect domestic water and recycled water pipelines||The $4.5 million project will connect domestic water and recycled water pipelines between the communities, which will increase the Santa Margarita Water District’s efficiency in transporting the water, said Dan Ferons, the district’s chief engineer.|
|4 December 2007||A toast to recycled sewage||Also, the cost of the usable water the system produces—about $500 per acre-foot, which is about 325,000 gallons—is in line with treated water we buy from other sources.|
|9 January 2014||Basin at Boeing site to buoy water recycling system||The water goes through a series of treatments, ending when it is pumped into basins in Anaheim where it percolates into the groundwater aquifer.|
|24 April 2014||Anaheim’s Water Sustainability Campus helps fight the effects of drought||Large machines use ozone, membrane filters and ultraviolet treatments to kill off bacteria and recycle waste generated throughout Anaheim to produce 50,000 gallons of water each day to irrigate the landscaping at City Hall.|
|24 February 2015||Yes, you can drink it—and you probably are: O.C. toilet-to-tap recycled water program is expanding||Second, the water goes through reverse osmosis, where it is forced through fine, bundled membranes to remove minerals, chemicals, viruses and pharmaceuticals. This is the heart of the OCWD’s treatment technology. |
The facility takes treated sewer water from the Orange County Sanitation District destined for the Pacific Ocean and runs it through a three-part treatment.
|15 June 2015||Disney, Irvine Co. top the list of biggest water users in Orange County: See who else joins them||There, the water undergoes advanced treatment, resulting in 70 million gallons of purified H2O being injected into the ground to refresh the aquifer.|
|17 June 2015||OC Watchdog: How much are colleges such as UC Irvine, Cal State Fullerton spending on water?||Soka, in Aliso Viejo, is a young campus, relatively speaking, which allows it to take advantage of newer technologies. Recycled waste water is used in all its landscaping, which requires an extensive double-piping system.|
|15 April 2016||Lake Mission Viejo to test the waters by using treated sewer water||There, sewage water is treated in a process that includes filtration tanks, reverse osmosis and ultraviolet light, making it safe enough to supply underground drinking water in north and central Orange County.|
|14 October 2016||Lake Mission Viejo ready for recycled water||The treatment method is similar to one used by the Orange County Water District’s Groundwater Replenishment System facility in Fountain Valley. There, wastewater is treated in a process that includes filtration tanks, reverse osmosis and ultraviolet light, making it safe enough to supply underground aquifers in north and central Orange County.|
|21 June 2017||Hollywood residents get the chance to drink purified toilet water from Orange County||Now, OCWD says their treatment is so advanced it can deliver the product directly to homes and businesses.|
|19 February 2018||From waste to taste: Orange County sets recycled water world record||The replenishment system aims to grow to a capacity of 130 million gallons daily. The water, previously pumped into the ocean, not only helps to sustain the county groundwater basin, but it creates a barrier to prevent seawater intrusion into the water supply. It also greatly reduces the county’s need for more expensive imported water and uses less energy than imported or desalinated water, according to the water district.|
|6 June 2000||City budget goes to water||A multimillion-dollar boost for Brisbane’s waterways and sewerage infrastructure will be announced in tomorrow’s City Council budget.|
|20 June 2000||City drinks up as wastewater flows to dams||BRISBANE residents are drinking thousands of cubic metres of diluted treated effluent each day as nearby towns discharge their wastewater upstream of the city’s dams.|
|10 July 2000||Wastewater alert hits schools||SEVERAL Queensland school ovals are being irrigated by “extremely dangerous” treated effluent, according to a departmental document. |
The Department of Natural Resources document obtained under the Freedom of Information Act has slammed a number of school water recycling schemes as “unsustainable” and in urgent need of review.
|20 November 2000||Sewage key to drinking water||QUEENSLAND’S future drinking water could come partly from treated, diluted sewage effluent. |
Treating wastewater and mixing it with river, dam or aquifer waters and then re-treating it and returning it to the mains is an option in a draft strategy released yesterday.
|27 December 2000||Environmental watershed||But he’s suspicious of technology that offers all the answers when the public is still coming to grips with the questions surrounding waste water. |
Questions do exist over the safety of recycled water, despite the treatment processes.
|13 March 2004||Coast recycling order||DEVELOPERS will be forced to install recycled water systems and rainwater tanks in one of the Gold Coast’s boom areas to help the region’s water supply cope with surging population growth. Gold Coast City Council yesterday approved the Pimpama-Coomera Waterfuture, a plan designed to cut water consumption in the Coast’s fast-growing northern corridor by almost 85 percent. Rainwater tanks and dual reticulation water systems will be mandatory in all new subdivisions.|
|20 February 2005||Wild about water party||Water recycling and conservation projects nationwide have been mismanaged or disappointing in the results they’ve achieved.|
|29 July 2005||Sewage on tap||IS RECYCLED sewage water likely to be your cup of tea—or, more exactly, would you like it in your cup of tea? |
As unpalatable as it may seem on the surface, it is something Australians may have to come to terms with sooner rather than later as the demand for water outstrips supply from dams, rivers and rainfall.
|13 August 2006||You might be drinking it already||PEOPLE in at least 30 Queensland towns are unwittingly drinking recycled sewage.|
|8 May 2009||Goalposts moved on recycled water guidelines||The report, by the Queensland Water Commission’s advisory board on recycled water, said tests of samples produced out of the Western Corridor Recycled Water project had detected bromodichloromethane, a byproduct of chlorination that is known to cause liver cancer in animals.|
|11 November 2009||Recycled water solution for Anna Bligh||Residents are already paying through the nose for this water.|
The water in that pipe has passed stringent health standards and has been produced by technology that is state-of-the-art.
|13 December 2010||Secret dossier exposes water woes dogging Bligh Government||They include major blunders never publicly revealed until today, including the $2.3 million spent upgrading Queensland Water Commission’s office, which is now half-empty because of its reduced role, and concerns about “rogue” recycled water test results.|
|12 August 2013||EDITORIAL: Good sense ran dry in costly water solutions||Peter Beattie unveiled this radical scheme to turn sewage into drinking water in 2007, at the height of southeast Queensland’s worst drought in decades. He planned three state-of-the-art treatment plants linked by a 200 km pipeline from Luggage Point in the east to Wivenhoe Dam in the west.|
|13 September 2013||Billions down drain as plug pulled on scheme||A WATER recycling “white elephant” has cost Queensland taxpayers more than $2.7 billion and the bill keeps rising. The Beattie government’s Western Corridor Recycling Scheme was mothballed last month, and State Parliament has been told it was “defunct”, and shaping as a bigger fiscal folly than the Queensland Health payroll debacle.|
|23 September 2014||Bill hike creates water torture||The charge goes towards paying down debt for $7 billion of water infrastructure bought by the former Labor government during the drought, which includes some white elephant projects such as the mothballed Tugun desalination plant and retired Western Corridor Recycling Plant.|
|31 January 2015||LABOR RECYCLED||The gang of five were members of governments which squandered billions of taxpayer dollars on botched hospital projects, the payroll disaster, the flawed water grid and the failed desalination plant.|
|27 July 2016||10 years ago||TOILET-TO-TAP POLL: Queensland voters appear headed for an early election with the main issue being the proposal to add recycled sewage to the southeast’s dwindling water supplies. Premier Peter Beattie yesterday said he might seek an election mandate from voters to add recycled water into the region’s major dams. Mr. Beattie will use this weekend’s referendum on recycled sewage in Toowoomba as a touchstone towards community attitudes to the controversial water proposal.|
|20 August 2016||BILLION DOLLAR BURDEN||A State Government estimates hearing was told the unused $2.7 billion Western Corridor recycled water pipeline is costing $10 million a year to maintain.|
|18 February 2017||Watching use now can save pain later||So it would be easy to forget the severity of those long dry years between 2001 and 2009, the Millennium Drought, when southeast Queensland stared at the threat of running out of water and Toowoomba had to vote on whether to drink recycled sewage.|
|13 April 2018||Timers come back to haunt us as water price hikes hit||The multibillion-dollar spending spree on pipelines, desalination plants and a recycled water scheme that followed is still hurting households.|
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