Next Article in Journal
Evaluation of GloFAS-Seasonal Forecasts for Cascade Reservoir Impoundment Operation in the Upper Yangtze River
Previous Article in Journal
Changes in the Risk of Extreme Climate Events over East Asia at Different Global Warming Levels
Previous Article in Special Issue
Development of Failure Cause–Impact–Duration (CID) Plots for Water Supply and Distribution System Management
Open AccessArticle

Reliability Assessment Model of Water Distribution Networks against Fire Following Earthquake (FFE)

1
School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China
2
Central and Southern China Municipal Engineering Design &Research Institute Co.,Ltd, Wuhan 230031, China
3
Shenzhen ANSO Measurement &Control Instruments Co.,Ltd, Shenzhen 518108, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(12), 2536; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122536
Received: 15 October 2019 / Revised: 18 November 2019 / Accepted: 27 November 2019 / Published: 30 November 2019
Fire following earthquake (FFE) is a common secondary disaster that can inflict great damage to humans. A large number of seismic resilience evaluation methods have been proposed, but few of them consider the influence of FFE. In this study, a multi-scenario simulation based model was developed to evaluate the post-disaster performance of water distribution networks (WDNs) in supplying both firefighting flow and original demand under the effect of seismic damage and FFEs. Hypothetical earthquakes were generated and the spatial–temporal distribution of FFEs was simulated by the Poisson distribution model and the Weibull distribution model. The post-disaster performance was evaluated by two types of seismic reliability metrics. The developed model was applied to a WDN currently operating in China with eight pre-determined earthquake scenarios. The results showed that the firefighting flow was concentrated in the first few hours after the earthquake. Thus, the serviceability of both original demand and firefighting flow was influenced significantly within the first few hours, while little impact was observed after the concentrated firefighting flow was delivered. The proposed model quantified the WDN’s performance under specific seismic damage and potential FFEs, and can be used for the planning, design, and maintenance of WDNs.
Keywords: reliability evaluation; fire following earthquake; water distribution networks; urban lifeline system reliability evaluation; fire following earthquake; water distribution networks; urban lifeline system
MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Y.; Gao, J.; Zhang, H.; Deng, L.; Xin, P. Reliability Assessment Model of Water Distribution Networks against Fire Following Earthquake (FFE). Water 2019, 11, 2536.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop