Citrus-processing industries produce large volumes of wastewater (CPWW). The large variability of these volumes coupled to physicochemical characteristics of CPWW determine severe constraints for their disposal due to both economic and environmental factors. To minimize the management costs and prevent the negative ecological impacts of CPWW, several systems have been proposed and adopted. However, all these treatment/valorization routes have many issues that are not yet thoroughly known by the scientific community and stakeholders of the citrus-processing chain. This paper reports an overview of the possible treatment/valorization opportunities for CPWW: intensive biological treatment, lagooning, direct land application, energy conversion, and biorefinery uses for the extraction of added-value compounds. Advantages and constraints are presented and discussed, and the following conclusions are achieved: (i) there is not a unique solution for CPWW treatment, since the best management system of CPWW must be chosen case by case, taking into account the quality/quantity of the effluent and the location of the transformation industry; (ii) the adoption of a biorefinery approach can increase the competitiveness and the further development of the whole citrus sector, but the cost of novel technologies (some of which have not been tested at real scale) still limits their development.
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