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Comparative Study of the Oxidative Degradation of Different 4-Aminobenzene Sulfonamides in Aqueous Solution by Sulfite Activation in the Presence of Fe(0), Fe(II), Fe(III) or Fe(VI)

1
Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
2
Center of Postgraduate Research and Studies, Faculty of Engineering, University Autonomous of San Luis Potosí, Av. Dr. M. Nava No. 8, San Luis Potosí 78290, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(11), 2332; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112332
Received: 9 October 2019 / Revised: 31 October 2019 / Accepted: 3 November 2019 / Published: 7 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial and Urban Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
This study is focused on advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs) using the combined effect of Fe(0–VI)/sulfite systems, that produce mainly SO4•− radicals, to remove different 4-aminobenzene sulfonamides (SAs), namely sulfamethazine, sulfadiazine, sulfamethizole, from aqueous solutions. Results obtained showed that neither sulfite nor iron alone is able to degrade SAs; however, the combined effect depends on the oxidation state of iron species whose effectiveness to activate sulfite to promote the degradation of SAs increased following this order: Fe(III) < Fe(II) < Fe(0) < Fe(VI). Using Fe(VI)/sulfite, the complete removal of SAs was obtained in 5 min largely surpassing the effectiveness of the other three systems. The sulfonamides’ removal percentage was markedly influenced by sulfite concentration and dissolved oxygen, which improved the generation of oxidant radicals. Response surface methodology was applied, and a quadratic polynomial model was obtained, which allowed us to determine the percentage of SAs degradation as a function of both the iron species and sulfite concentrations. The study of the influence of the water matrix on these AOTs revealed an inhibition of SAs’ removal percentage when using ground water. This is probably due to the presence of different anions, such as HCO3, Cl, and SO42− in relatively high concentrations. According to the byproducts identified, the proposed degradation pathways include hydroxylation, SO2 extrusion, and different bond-cleavage processes. Cytotoxicity of degradation byproducts, using MTS assay with HEK 293 and J774 cell lines for the first time, did not show an inhibition in cell proliferation, sustaining the safety of the process. View Full-Text
Keywords: advanced oxidation technologies; sulfite; iron; water contaminants; sulfonamides; cytotoxicity advanced oxidation technologies; sulfite; iron; water contaminants; sulfonamides; cytotoxicity
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Acosta-Rangel, A.; Sánchez-Polo, M.; Rozalen, M.; Rivera-Utrilla, J.; Polo, A.; Mota, A.J. Comparative Study of the Oxidative Degradation of Different 4-Aminobenzene Sulfonamides in Aqueous Solution by Sulfite Activation in the Presence of Fe(0), Fe(II), Fe(III) or Fe(VI). Water 2019, 11, 2332.

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