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Enhanced Coagulation with Mn(III) Pre-Oxidation for Treatment of Micro-Polluted Raw Water

Institute of Coastal and Offshore Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zhoushan 316000, China
The Architectural Design & Research Institute of Zhejiang University Co., Ltd., Hangzhou 310058, China
Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Safety and Distribution Technology, College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Jiyang College of Zhejiang A & F University, Zhuji 311800, China
Huzhou Water Group, Huzhou 313000, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(11), 2302;
Received: 7 October 2019 / Revised: 1 November 2019 / Accepted: 2 November 2019 / Published: 3 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Water and Wastewater Treatment)
Mn(III) oxidation technology has attracted increasing interest in recent years because of its fast decontamination kinetics and second-pollution-free characteristic. Whether it can be used as a pre-oxidation step to enhance conventional coagulation process remains to be evaluated. Herein, an Fe-coagulation/sedimentation process combined with Mn(III) pre-oxidation (Mn(III)+C/S), hypochlorite pre-oxidation (Cl2+C/S), and permanganate pre-oxidation (PM+C/S) was applied to treat simulated micro-polluted raw water. The removal performance of routine water quality indices (turbidity, dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen, ammonia-nitrogen, Pb(II), and Cr(VI)) and the emerging pollutants (acesulfame, carbamazepine, bisphenol S, and nano-ZnO) created by these three processes were researched. The mechanism of how Mn(III) pre-oxidation influences C/S was explored by identifying the transformation products of Mn(III), measuring the timely variation of flocs’ zeta potential and size, and scanning flocs’ micromorphology. Compared to Cl2+C/S and PM+C/S, Mn(III)+C/S exhibited its superiority in removing dissolved organic carbon (72.9%), total nitrogen (31.74%), and emerging pollutants (21.78%–93.49%). The enhanced removal of these contaminants by Mn(III)+C/S found its explanation in the strong oxidation power of Mn(III) and the multiple roles of in-situ formed MnO2 (e.g., flocculation core, adsorption co-precipitant, and densification agent). The acute toxicity tests confirmed that water treated by Mn(III)+C/S did not show a significant change in the associated toxicity. The findings of the present study indicate that Mn(III) oxidation technology shows great potential as an alternative to pre-oxidation technology of waterworks.
Keywords: pre-oxidation; enhanced coagulation; Mn(III); emerging pollutants; micro-polluted raw water pre-oxidation; enhanced coagulation; Mn(III); emerging pollutants; micro-polluted raw water
MDPI and ACS Style

Yan, D.; Sun, Z.; Wang, J.; Wang, L.; Pan, R.; Wu, Q.; Liu, X. Enhanced Coagulation with Mn(III) Pre-Oxidation for Treatment of Micro-Polluted Raw Water. Water 2019, 11, 2302.

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