# A 3D Reconstruction Pipeline of Urban Drainage Pipes Based on MultiviewImage Matching Using Low-Cost Panoramic Video Cameras

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Methodology

#### 2.1. Pipe Panoramic Video Capture and Frames Extraction

#### 2.2. 2D Panorama Reprojection

#### 2.3. 3D Reconstruction

## 3. Experiments and Results

#### 3.1. Scene 1

#### 3.2. Scene 2

#### 3.3. Other Scenes

## 4. Discussion

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 3.**Panorama reprojection strategy: original panorama (

**a**), panoramic sphere (

**b**), reprojection directions (

**c**), and reprojectedresults (

**d**).

**Figure 5.**Reconstruction result of scene 1: sparse point cloud (

**a**), dense point cloud (

**b**), solid model (

**c**), and textured model (

**d**).

**Figure 7.**Reconstruction results based on side-view images (

**a**,

**b**), and reconstruction results based on front-view images (

**c**,

**d**).

**Figure 8.**Reconstruction result of scene 2: sparse point cloud (

**a**), dense point cloud (

**b**), solid model (

**c**), and textured model (

**d**).

**Figure 11.**Reconstruction results based on side-view images (

**a**,

**b**), and reconstruction results based on front-view images (

**c**,

**d**).

Direction | ${\mathit{\theta}}_{\mathit{q}}$ | ${\mathit{\phi}}_{\mathit{q}}$ | ||
---|---|---|---|---|

$\left({x}_{d},{y}_{d}\right)$ | $\{\begin{array}{l}\begin{array}{l}{\theta}_{q}={\mathrm{tan}}^{-1}\left(\mathsf{\Delta}y/\mathsf{\Delta}x\right);(\mathsf{\Delta}x>0)\\ {\theta}_{q}={\mathrm{tan}}^{-1}\left(\mathsf{\Delta}y/\mathsf{\Delta}x\right)+\pi ;\left(\mathsf{\Delta}x<0\text{}and\text{}\mathsf{\Delta}y0\right)\end{array}\\ {\theta}_{q}={\mathrm{tan}}^{-1}\left(\mathsf{\Delta}y/\mathsf{\Delta}x\right)-\pi ;(\mathsf{\Delta}x0\text{}and\text{}\mathsf{\Delta}y0)\end{array}$ | (3) | ${\phi}_{q}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}=-{\mathrm{tan}}^{-1}\left(R/\sqrt{\mathsf{\Delta}{x}^{2}+\mathsf{\Delta}{y}^{2}}\right)$ | (9) |

$\left({x}_{t},{y}_{t}\right)$ | $\{\begin{array}{l}\begin{array}{l}{\theta}_{q}=-{\mathrm{tan}}^{-1}\left(\mathsf{\Delta}y/\mathsf{\Delta}x\right);(\mathsf{\Delta}x>0)\\ {\theta}_{q}=-{\mathrm{tan}}^{-1}\left(\mathsf{\Delta}y/\mathsf{\Delta}x\right)-\pi ;\left(\mathsf{\Delta}x<0\text{}and\text{}\mathsf{\Delta}y0\right)\end{array}\\ {\theta}_{q}=-{\mathrm{tan}}^{-1}\left(\mathsf{\Delta}y/\mathsf{\Delta}x\right)+\pi ;(\mathsf{\Delta}x0\text{}and\text{}\mathsf{\Delta}y0)\end{array}$ | (4) | ${\phi}_{q}={\mathrm{tan}}^{-1}\left(R/\sqrt{\mathsf{\Delta}{x}^{2}+\mathsf{\Delta}{y}^{2}}\right)$ | (10) |

$\left({x}_{l},{y}_{l}\right)$ | $\{\begin{array}{l}{\theta}_{q}={\mathrm{tan}}^{-1}\left(\mathsf{\Delta}x/R\right)-\pi ;(\mathsf{\Delta}x>0)\\ {\theta}_{q}={\mathrm{tan}}^{-1}\left(\mathsf{\Delta}x/R\right)+\pi ;(\mathsf{\Delta}x<0)\end{array}$ | (5) | ${\phi}_{q}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}=-{\mathrm{tan}}^{-1}\left(\mathsf{\Delta}y/\sqrt{\mathsf{\Delta}{x}^{2}+{R}^{2}}\right)$ | (11) |

$\left({x}_{r},{y}_{r}\right)$ | ${\theta}_{q}={\mathrm{tan}}^{-1}\left(\mathsf{\Delta}x/R\right)$ | (6) | ||

$\left({x}_{f},{y}_{f}\right)$ | $\{\begin{array}{l}{\theta}_{q}=-{\mathrm{tan}}^{-1}\left(R/\mathsf{\Delta}x\right);(\mathsf{\Delta}x>0)\\ {\theta}_{q}=-{\mathrm{tan}}^{-1}\left(R/\mathsf{\Delta}x\right)-\pi ;(\mathsf{\Delta}x<0)\end{array}$ | (7) | ||

$\left({x}_{b},{y}_{b}\right)$ | $\{\begin{array}{l}{\theta}_{q}=-{\mathrm{tan}}^{-1}\left(R/\mathsf{\Delta}x\right)+\pi ;(\mathsf{\Delta}x>0)\\ {\theta}_{q}=-{\mathrm{tan}}^{-1}\left(R/\mathsf{\Delta}x\right);(\mathsf{\Delta}x<0)\end{array}$ | (8) |

Scene | Size | Material | Texture Richness |
---|---|---|---|

Scene 1 | large | brick | good |

Scene 2 | narrow | plastic | uneven |

Scene 3 | secondary | cement | secondary |

Scene 4 | small | cement | poor |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Zhang, X.; Zhao, P.; Hu, Q.; Wang, H.; Ai, M.; Li, J. A 3D Reconstruction Pipeline of Urban Drainage Pipes Based on MultiviewImage Matching Using Low-Cost Panoramic Video Cameras. *Water* **2019**, *11*, 2101.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102101

**AMA Style**

Zhang X, Zhao P, Hu Q, Wang H, Ai M, Li J. A 3D Reconstruction Pipeline of Urban Drainage Pipes Based on MultiviewImage Matching Using Low-Cost Panoramic Video Cameras. *Water*. 2019; 11(10):2101.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102101

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Zhang, Xujie, Pengcheng Zhao, Qingwu Hu, Hean Wang, Mingyao Ai, and Jiayuan Li. 2019. "A 3D Reconstruction Pipeline of Urban Drainage Pipes Based on MultiviewImage Matching Using Low-Cost Panoramic Video Cameras" *Water* 11, no. 10: 2101.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102101