2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Materials and Methods to Calculate Water and Population Distribution among the Riparian Countries
2.2. Methods to Assess the Progress of Water Cooperation and IWRM Implementation in the BRB between China and India
3.1. Water Resources Distribution in the BR Basin
3.2. China-India Water Cooperation
3.2.1. Water Cooperation Process Since 1950s
- In 1955, China began to provide the discharge data from three gauges on the mainstream of the Yaluzangbu River to India from 15 July to 15 October, as requested by the Prime Minister of India in 1954. In 1957, China provided hydrological information on rainfall, water level, and discharge of the above stations .
- China stopped providing hydrological information to India from 1963 to 2001, after the border conflicts between China and India in 1959–1962.
- An agreement between China and India on environmental cooperation was signed in 1993, after a bi-lateral trade agreement in 1983 and the gradual restoration of Sino-Indian relations.
- In 2002, China and India signed the first MOU on the provision of hydrological information of the Yaluzangbu/BR, in response to India’s flooding concerns. For example, in June 2000, a flood killed 30 Indians and left 50,000 homeless, after a break in a natural dam formed by a landslide on a tributary of the Yaluzangbu River in Tibet. During 2002–2015, the China-India cooperation on transboundary rivers continued to develop, and a series of MOUs and corresponding implementation plans were signed for sharing hydrological data on the Yaluzangbu/BR and the Langqen Zangbo/Sutlej River, during the flood seasons. The China-India Expert Level Mechanism on Trans-Border Rivers (ELM) was established in 2006.
- In 2018, the top leaders of each country met informally, which led to a cooling down of tensions . This resulted in the signing of an MOU and an implementation plan on the provision of hydrological information for the Yaluzangbu/BR, and the 11th meeting of the ELM was held in Hangzhou (China).
3.2.2. Issues on Transboundary Rivers in Sino-Indian Diplomatic Relations
- Issues involving Sino-Indian transboundary rivers have been a concern, and cooperation has been facilitated by both governments since 2003. This followed communication between the ministries of water resources was supported by the Protocol on Cooperation between China and India in 1997 and the MOU on the provision of flood season hydrologic information by China to India was signed in 2002. As the former Prime Minister of China Wen Jiabao  said, “to properly preserve, utilize, and manage the trans-border rivers is our shared responsibility. We are ready to further improve the joint working mechanism.” The two sides agreed to promote and enhance further cooperation and strengthen communication on the utilization and protection of transboundary rivers.
- Cooperation on transboundary rivers is being extended, for example, by the provision of hydrologic information of one river to two rivers, from information sharing on emergency management and other issues, and by communication between the two ministries of water resources, and the establishment of ELM. Water cooperation between the two countries is being developed in the background of China-India relations; as the Prime Minister of China Li Keqiang said , “in the larger interest of China-India relations, as well as the humanitarian spirit, we have been providing assistance to the Indian side in terms of sharing flood-season hydrological information and managing emergency.”
- The value and achievements of transboundary river cooperation have been recognized. From the Chinese perspective, the ongoing cooperation on transboundary rivers has contributed positively to building mutual understanding and trust, and has proved valuable in flood forecasting and mitigation. The Indian side has expressed deep appreciation for data being made available that has helped ensure the safety and security of its population along the rivers, and for the assistance and efforts in emergency management by the Chinese side.
3.2.3. Duties Undertaken by China and by India in Water Cooperation
- Duties of the Chinese side: To provide hydrological information on water level, discharge, and rainfall of Nugesha, Yangcun, and Nuxia stations at 8:00 and 20:00 (Beijing Time) from 1 June to 15 October each year to the Indian side; to provide hydrological information when water levels exceed mutually agreed levels during the non-flood season; to provide water level, discharge, and rainfall data of earlier years (10 years) during flood season with respect to the three stations; to provide documents relating to the catchment area of the Yaluzangbu River and the historical information as available on the occurrence of floods and natural disasters; to provide information on any abnormal rise/fall in the water level/discharge and other information which might lead to sudden floods on the basis of existing monitoring and data collection facilities. Among the above duties undertaken by the Chinese side, the duty on the provision of hydrological information of earlier years was cancelled from 2008, and another on the data provision period was changed from 15 May instead of 1 June to 15 October, since 2014.
- Duties of the Indian side: to provide the Chinese side information regarding data utilization in flood forecasting and mitigation, since the 2008 MOU.
- Duties of both sides: To identify the agreed water levels during the non-flood season; to identify costs involved and discuss the modalities for apportioning the expenditures; to identify the implementing agencies of each; and to guide the implementing agencies to discuss and finalize the Implementation Plan after signing of the MOU.
- Duties of the Chinese side: To provide hydrological information of water level, discharge and rainfall of Nugesha, Yangcun, and Nuxia stations, within 30 minutes after 08:00 and 20:00 (Beijing time) every day, from 1 June to 15 October during 2002–2013, and from 15 May to 15 October, since 2014; to provide hydrological information on water levels and discharge if the water levels of the above-mentioned stations are close to or are reaching warning levels during the non-flood season; to conduct a trial provision of hydrological information at 12:00 (Beijing time) on 28 May, during 2002–2013, and on 12 May since 2014, in order to guarantee the timely provision of hydrological information; the rating curve of water level and discharge, with observed discharge data from each of the stations, use this information in the next year, in order to guarantee the precision of the hydrological information; to transmit hydrological information to the Indian side directly, in the form of text, in accordance with the agreed e-mail addresses via the Internet and; to send the data again if the Indian side does not receive the data and informs the Chinese side in time. For 2002, to provide the pre-flood section data of the above-mentioned stations above the maximum flood level of 0.5 m (this was not included in the later implementation plans).
- Duties of the Indian side: To reply in a timely manner to the Chinese trial provision on 28 May or 12 May; to inform the Chinese side by e-mail or fax immediately, if the Indian side does not receive the data; to transfer payments for the provision of the hydrological information and the operation of the hydrological station at the end of every April, within the period of validity of the implementation plans, since 2010; to provide information regarding data utilization in flood forecasting and mitigation; to provide information of the hydrological station of India, which is on the mainstream and close by China’s Nuxia station, including the station’s name, latitude, and longitude, and type of data observed, since 2010 and; to submit other requirements through diplomatic channels for the duration of the hydrologic information provision of 2002, which is not included in the later plans.
- Duties of both sides: To comply with the corresponding MOUs; to agree to the warning water levels for the relevant stations in non-flood season; if necessary, to dispatch hydrological experts to each other’s countries, in order to conduct study tours according to the principle of reciprocity, after mutual consultation through diplomatic channel, and in order to ensure the normal provision of hydrological information.
3.2.4. Roles of the ELM in Transboundary Water Cooperation
3.2.5. Progress of IWRM Implementation between China and India in the BRB
- Non-cooperation: no formal or informal cooperative arrangement.
- Preliminary cooperation: riparian countries have expressed the intent for cooperation, but have no cooperation either, substantively or procedurally.
- Issues cooperation: a cooperative arrangement exists between riparian countries to address a specific issue(s).
- Emerging comprehensive cooperation: Riparian countries are developing or have recently developed a cooperative arrangement, to establish a legal framework, address multiple issues, and include coordination mechanisms.
- Continuing comprehensive cooperation: Riparian countries have developed a cooperative arrangement for an ongoing legal framework for shared management of the basin, and have continued to collaborate to address multiple issues related to the shared waters and solutions include shared benefits.
4.1. The BR’s Water Issues Concerned by People in Different Fields
4.2. Transboundary Water Cooperation and China-India Relations
4.3. Views Presented through the Media on Sino-Indian Water Relations in the BRB
Conflicts of Interest
- Dinar, A.; Dinar, S.; McCaffrey, S.; McKinney, D. Bridges over Water: Understanding Transboundary Water Conflict, Negotiation and Cooperation, 2nd ed.; World Scientific Publishing Co.: London, UK, 2013; pp. 210–234. [Google Scholar]
- Xu, X.J.; Hu, X.J.; Zhang, L. Water Resources Development in the Yaluzangbu-Brahmaputra River; Hubei Science & Technology Press: Wuhan, China, 2013; pp. 1–10. (In Chinese) [Google Scholar]
- UNEP; GEF; UNEP-DHI Partnership. Transboundary River Basins: Status and Trends; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP): Nairobi, Kenya, 2016; pp. 44–62. [Google Scholar]
- De Stefano, L.; Petersen-Perlman, J.D.; Sproles, E.A.; Eynard, J.; Wolf, A.T. Assessment of transboundary river basins for potential hydro-political tensions. Global Environ. Change 2017, 45, 35–46. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ray, P.A.; Yang, Y.E.; Wi, S.; Khalil, A.; Chatikavanij, V.; Brown, C. Room for improvement: Hydro-climatic challenges to poverty-reducing development of the Brahmaputra River basin. Environ. Sci. Policy 2015, 54, 64–80. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Xie, L.; Jia, S.F. Diplomatic water cooperation: the case of Sino-India dispute over Brahmaputra. Int. Environ. Agreem. Politics Law Econ. 2017, 17, 677–694. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Jiang, H.C.; Qiang, M.S.; Lin, P.; Qi, B.Q.; An, N. Framing the Brahmaputra River hydropower development: different concerns in riparian and international media reporting. Water Policy 2017, 19, 496–512. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dahal, S.H.; Gazdar, H.; Keethaponcalan, S.I.; Murth, P. Internal Conflict and Regional Security in South Asia: Approaches, Perspectives and Policies; United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR): Geneva, Switzerland, 2003. [Google Scholar]
- Elhance, A.P. Hydropolitics in the Third World: Conflict and Cooperation in International River Basins; USIP Press: Washington, DC, USA, 1999. [Google Scholar]
- Ho, S. River Politics: China’s policies in the Mekong and the Brahmaputra in comparative perspective. J. Contemp. Chin. 2014, 23, 1–20. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bhaskar, R.N. What Chinese Dam on Brahmaputra Means to India. Available online: https://www.dnaindia.com/business/report-what-chinese-dam-on-brahmaputra-means-to-india-2038737 (accessed on 7 April 2019).
- Liu, Y. Transboundary water cooperation on the Yarlung Zangbo/Brahmaputra-a legal analysis of riparian state practice. Water Int. 2015, 40, 354–374. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Christopher, M. Water Wars: The Brahmaputra River and Sino-Indian Relations; US Naval War College, Center on Irregular Warfare and Armed Groups: Newport, OR, USA, 2013; pp. 10–12. [Google Scholar]
- Zeitoun, M.; Cascão, A.; Warner, J.; Mirumachi, N.; Matthews, N.; Menga, F.; Farnum, R. Transboundary water interaction III: Contest and compliance. Int. Environ. Agreem. Politics Law Econ. 2017, 17, 271–294. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wegerich, K.; Warner, J.F. The Politics of Water: A Survey; Routledge: New York, NY, USA, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Hussein, H.; Menga, F.; Greco, F. Monitoring transboundary water cooperation in SDG 6.5.2: How a critical hydropolitics approach can spot inequitable outcomes. Sustainability 2018, 10, 3640. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hutjens, P.; Yasuda, Y.; Swain, A.; De Man, R.; Magsig, B.O.; Islam, S. The Multi-Track Water Diplomacy Framework: A Legal and Political Economy Analysis for Advancing Cooperation over Shared Waters; The Hague Institute for Global Justice: Hague, The Netherlands, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Pohl, B.; Carius, A.; Conca, K.; Dabelko, G.D.; Kramer, A.; Michel, D.; Schmeier, S.; Swain, A.; Wolf, A. The Rise of Hydro-Diplomacy: Strengthening Foreign Policy for Transboundary Waters; Adelphi: Berlin, Germany, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- United Nations. Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Available online: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/21252030%20Agenda%20for%20Sustainable%20Development%20web.pdf (accessed on 16 August 2019).
- Sindico, F. Transboundary Water Cooperation and the Sustainable Development Goals; The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization: Paris, France, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Sustainable Development Goals Knowledge Platform. Available online: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdg6 (accessed on 28 September 2019).
- National Statistics Bureau of Bhutan. Statistical Yearbook of Bhutan 2018. Available online: http://www.nsb.gov.bt/publication/files/SYB_2018.pdf (accessed on 30 January 2019).
- Bureau of Statistics of Tibet Autonomous Region. Tibet Statistical Yearbook 2018; China Statistics Press: Beijing, China, 2018. (In Chinese) [Google Scholar]
- Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (Government of India). Area and Population-Statistical Year Book India 2018. Available online: http://www.mospi.gov.in/statistical-year-book-india/2018/171 (accessed on 30 January 2019).
- Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. Statistical Year Book Bangladesh 2017, 37th ed. Available online: http://bbs.portal.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/bbs.portal.gov.bd/page/b2db8758_8497_412c_a9ec_6bb299f8b3ab/S_Y_B2017.pdf (accessed on 30 January 2019).
- Rahaman, M.M.; Varis, O. Integrated water management of the Brahmaputra Basin: perspectives and hope for regional development. Nat. Resour. Forum 2009, 33, 60–75. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Department of Water Resources of Tibet Autonomous Region (P.R. of China). Investigation Report on the Background of the Development and Treatment of the International Rivers in the Tibet Autonomous Region; Department of Water Resources of Tibet Autonomous Region: Lasa, China, 2004. (In Chinese)
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Aquastat: Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna river basin. Available online: http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/basins/gbm/gbm-CP_eng.pdf (accessed on 25 February 2019).
- Datta, B.; Singh, V.P. Hydrology. In The Brahmaputra Basin Water Resources; Singh, V.P., Sharma, N., Ojha, C.P., Eds.; Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, the Netherlands, 2004; pp. 139–195. [Google Scholar]
- United Nations-Water (UN-Water). Progress on Transboundary Water Cooperation: Global Baseline for SDG Indicator 6.5.2; United Nation and UNESCO: Paris, France, 2018; pp. 1–80. [Google Scholar]
- McCracken, M. Measuring Transboundary Water Cooperation: Options for Sustainable Development Goal Target 6.5.; Global Water Partnership (GWP): Stockholm, Sweden, 2017; pp. 1–88. [Google Scholar]
- Tarlock, D. Promoting Effective Water Management Cooperation among Riparian Nations; Global Water Partnership (GWP): Stockholm, Sweden, 2015; pp. 1–64. [Google Scholar]
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs of P.R.of China. Treaty Database. Available online: http://treaty.mfa.gov.cn/Treaty/web/list.jsp (accessed on 30 January 2019). (In Chinese)
- International Economic and Technological Cooperation and Exchange Center of Ministry of Water Resources of China. Compilation of China-India Relations and Important Bi-lateral Documents; Ministry of Water Resources of P.R. of China: Beijing, China, 2018. (In Chinese)
- Editorial Board of Tibet Autonomous Region Water Conservancy Annals. Tibet Autonomous Region Water Conservancy Annals; China Tibetology Publishing House: Beijing, China, 2015; pp. 39–40. (In Chinese) [Google Scholar]
- Amid Doklam standoff, China withholds data on Brahmaputra, Sutlej. Available online: http://www.uniindia.com/amid-doklam-standoff-china-withholds-data-on-brahmaputra-sutlej/india/news/963827.html (accessed on 15 March 2019).
- Yun, T.M. China will recover provision of hydrologic information of the Yaluzangbu River stopped by the Doklam Incident. Available online: https://new.qq.com/omn/20180329/20180329A0G50E.html (accessed on 4 February 2019).
- Would China restore provision of hydrologic information of the Yaluzangbu River stopped after the Doklam standoff? Available online: https://military.china.com/important/11132797/20170912/31375149.html (accessed on 4 February 2019).
- From Doklam to Wuhan: 2018 Will Go Down as Watershed Year in Testy India-China Ties. Available online: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/defence/from-doklam-to-wuhan-2018-will-go-down-as-watershed-year-in-testy-india-china-ties/articleshow/67240722.cms (accessed on 15 March 2019).
- Wen, J.B. Working Together for New Glories of the Oriental Civilization. Available online: https://www.wenkuxiazai.com/doc/1ae14939376baf1ffc4fad2a-7.html (accessed on 30 March 2019).
- Li, K.Q. Seize the New Opportunities in China-India Strategic Cooperation. Available online: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/hqzx/2013-05/22/content_16517976.htm (accessed on 30 March 2019). (In Chinese).
- Stojanov, R.; Kelman, I.; Ullah, A.; Duzi, B.; Prochazka, D.; Blahutova, K.K. Local Expert Perceptions of Migration as a Climate Change Adaptation in Bangladesh. Sustainability 2016, 8, 1223. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sud, R.; Mishra, A.; Varma, N.; Bhadwal, S. Adaptation policy and practice in densely populated glacier-fed river basins of South Asia: A systematic review. Reg. Environ. Change 2015, 15, 825–836. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kang, S.; Xu, Y.; You, Q.; Flugel, W.; Pepin, N.; Yao, T. Review of climate and cryospheric change in the Tibetan Plateau. Environ. Res. Lett. 2010, 5, 101–109. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Li, F.P.; Xu, Z.X.; Liu, W.F.; Zhang, Y.Q. The impact of climate change on runoff in the Yarlung Tsangpo River basin in the Tibetan Plateau. Stochastic Environ. Res. Risk Assess. 2014, 28, 517–526. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Connell, D. Transboundary water governance. In Global Water: Issues and Insights; Grafton, R.Q., Wyrwoll, P., White, C., Allendes, D., Eds.; ANU Press: Canberra, Australia, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- IMF Country Report No.11/23. Available online: https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2011/cr11123.pdf (accessed on 10 January 2019).
- Bhutan. Available online: https://www.hydropower.org/country-profiles/bhutan (accessed on 10 January 2019).
- Nicholls, R.J.; Hotton, C.W.; Lazar, A.N.; Adger, W.N.; Adams, H.; Wolf, J.; Rahman, M.; Salehin, M. Integrated assessment of social and environmental sustainability dynamics in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta, Bangladesh. Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci. 2016, 183, 370–381. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Leal, F.W. Climate Change and the Sustainable Use of Water Resources; Springer Science & Business Media: Berlin, Germany, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Szabo, S.; Hajra, R.; Baschieri, A.; Matthews, Z. Inequalities in Human Well-Being in the Urban Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna Delta. Sustainability 2016, 8, 608. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Varma, N.; Mishra, A. Discourses, Narratives and Purposeful Action Unraveling the Social-Ecological Complexity within the Brahmaputra Basin in India. Environ. Policy Govern. 2017, 27, 207–228. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Das Gupta, A.D.; Singh, B.; Albert, X.; Mark, O. Water sector of Bangladesh in the context of integrated water resources management: A review. Int. J. Water Resour. Dev. 2005, 21, 385–398. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ayeb-Karlsson, S.; Geest, K.; Ahmed, I.; Huq, S.; Warner, K. A people-centred perspective on climate change, environmental stress, and livelihood resilience in Bangladesh. Sustain. Sci. 2016, 11, 679–694. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chowdhury, R.; Moore, G. Floating agriculture: A potential cleaner production technique for climate change adaptation and sustainable community development in Bangladesh. J. Clean. Prod. 2017, 150, 371–389. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ministry of Environment and Forest. Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (BCCSAP); Government of Bangladesh: Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2009.
- Shahid, S.; Behrawan, H. Drought risk assessment in the western part of Bangladesh. Nat. Hazards 2008, 46, 391–413. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Whitehead, P.G.; Barbour, E.; Futter, M.N.; Sarkar, S. Impacts of climate change and socio-economic scenarios on flow and water quality of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) river systems: low flow and flood statistics. Environ. Sci. Process. Impacts 2015, 17, 1057–1069. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Wirsing, R.G.; Jasparro, C.; Stoll, D.C. International Conflict over Water Resources in Himalayan Asia; Palgrave Macmillan: New York, NY, USA, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Vaidya, R.A.; Sharma, E. Research Insights on Climate and Water in the Hindu Kush Himalayas; International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development: Katmandu, Nepal, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Hussein, H.; Grandi, M. Dynamic political contexts and power asymmetries: the cases of the Blue Nile and the Yarmouk Rivers. Int. Environ. Agreem. 2017, 17, 795–814. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Grey, D.; Garrick, D.; Blackmore, D.; Kelman, J.; Muller, M.; Sadoff, C. Water security in one blue planet: twenty-first century policy challenges for science. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 2013, 371. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Xie, L.; Zhang, Y.B.; Panda, J. Mismatched Diplomacy: China-India Water Relations Over the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin. J. Contemp. China 2018, 27, 32–46. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bandyopadhyay, J.; Ghosh, N. Holistic engineering and hydro-diplomacy in the Ganges– Brahmaputra–Meghna Basin. Econ. Polit. Wkly. 2009, 44, 50–60. [Google Scholar]
- Chellaney, B. China’s Hydro-Hegemony. The New York Times. Available online: https://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/08/opinion/global/chinas-hydro-hegemony.html (accessed on 7 April 2019).
- Asthana, V.; Shukla, A.C. Water Security in India: Hope, Despair, and the Challenges of Human Development; Bloomsbury Academic: New York, NY, USA, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Limaye, S. The Middle Riparian’s Quandaries: India and the Brahmaputra River Basin; CNA: Arlington, WV, USA, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Hanasz, P. Muddy waters: International actors and transboundary water cooperation in the Ganges-Brahmaputra problemshed. Water Altern. 2017, 10, 459–474. [Google Scholar]
- Wirsing, R.G. The Brahmaputra: water hotspot in Himalayan Asia. In Global Water: Issues and Insights; Grafton, R.Q., Wyrwoll, P., White, C., Allendes, D., Eds.; ANU Press: Canberra, Australia, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Zeitoun, M.; Warner, J. Hydro-hegemony-a framework for analysis of transboundary water conflict. Water Policy 2006, 8, 435–460. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Nickum, E.J. The upstream superpower: China’s international rivers. In Management of Transboundary Rivers and Lakes; Varis, O., Tortajada, C., Biswas, A.K., Eds.; Springer: Berlin and Heidelberg, Germany, 2008; pp. 227–244. [Google Scholar]
- Zhang, H.Z. Sino-Indian water disputes: the coming water wars? WIREs Water 2016, 3, 155–166. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Samaranayake, N.; Limaye, S.; Wuthow, J. Water resources competition in the Brahmaputra River Basin: China, India, and Bangladesh; CNA: Arlington, WV, USA, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Malone, D.M.; Mukherjee, R. India and China: Conflict and cooperation. Survival 2010, 52, 137–158. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lebel, L.; Xu, J.C.; Bastakoti, R.C.; Lamba, A. Pursuits of adaptiveness in the shared rivers of Monsoon Asia. Int. Environ. Agreem. Politics Law Econ. 2010, 10, 355–375. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- International Cooperation: India-China Cooperation. Available online: https://archive.india.gov.in/sectors/water_resources/index.php?id=6 (accessed on 6 April 2019).
- Transcript of Regular News Conference by PRC Foreign Ministry. Available online: https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/xwfw_665399/s2510_665401/t1214040.shtml (accessed on 6 April 2019).
- China allays India’s Fears on Brahmaputra dam. Available online: https://www.dnaindia.com/india/report-china-allays-india-s-fears-on-brahmaputra-dam-2038192 (accessed on 7 April 2019).
- Chellaney, B. Water: Asia’s New Battleground; Georgetown University Press: Washington, DC, USA, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Denyer, S. Chinese dams in Tibet raise hackles in India. Washington Post, 8 February 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Hydropower Station on Brahmaputra: India to Monitor Situation. Available online: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-news-india/hydropower-station-on-brahmaputra-india-to-monitor-situation/ (accessed on 7 April 2019).
- India Plans to Build Big Dams over Brahmaputra, Says Uma Bharti. Available online: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/economy/infrastructure/india-plans-to-build-big-dams-over-brahmaputra-says-uma-bharti/articleshow/47544450.cms (accessed on 7 April 2019).
|Countries/Disputed Area||Length of the Mainstream/km||Drainage Area/103 km2||Annual Runoff/km3||Population/Million (2017)|
|South Tibet (China)/Arunachal Pradesh (India)||278||81.6||80.5||1.6|
|Year||Events||Cooperation on Transboundary Water|
|1950||Diplomatic ties established in 1950; the prime ministers visited each other in 1954.||Provisions of discharge data in 1955, and of hydrologic information (discharge, rainfall, and water level) in 1957.|
|1959||Border conflicts in 1959–1962.||In 1963, China stopped the provision of hydrologic information.|
|1984||Agreement on trade in 1984. Indian prime minister visited China in 1988.||In 1993, agreement on environmental cooperation signed, along with gradual restoration of Sino-Indian relations|
|1997||Protocol on Cooperation||In 2002, MOU and the Implementation Plan on the Yaluzangbu/BR.|
|2003||Declaration on the Principles of Relations and Comprehensive Cooperation in 2003; Joint Declaration in 2005||MOU in 2005 and Implementation Plan in 2008. The Expert Level Mechanism on Trans-border Rivers (ELM) established in 2006, and the Work Regulation in 2008. MOU in 2008 and Implementation plan in 2010.|
|2010||Joint Communique||MOU in 2010 and Implementation Plan in 2011 on the Langqen Zangbo/Sutlej River.|
|2013||Joint Declaration; Agreement on Border Defence Cooperation.||MOU in 2013 and the Implementation Plans upon the Yaluzangbu/BR in 2013 and in 2014. MOU on Strengthening Cooperation on Trans-border Rivers in 2013.|
|2015||Joint Declaration||In 2015, MOU upon the Langqen Zangbo/Sutlej River.|
|2017||73-day Doklam standoff||In 2017, provision of hydrological information and annual meeting of China-India expert level mechanism stopped.|
|2018||Informal summit of the top leaders||In 2018, MOU and Implementation Plan upon the Yaluzangbu/BR; the 11th meeting of the ELM held; China notified of emergency information on a landslide on the mainstream to India.|
|Year||Document||Cooperation Intentions and Achievements|
|1997||Protocol on Cooperation||To facilitate exchange of information between the respective ministries.|
|2003||Declaration on the Principles of Relations and Cooperation||To work towards exchange of flood season hydrological data on common rivers as agreed.|
|2005||Joint Declaration||To cooperate in the exchange of flood season hydrological information on transboundary rivers agreed. The two sides expressed their satisfaction with the signing of a MOU on hydrological information provision.|
|2006||Joint Declaration||To set up an expert-level mechanism to discuss cooperation on trans-border rivers as agreed between them. The ongoing provision of hydrological data has proved valuable in flood forecasting and mitigation.|
|2008||A Common Version for the 21st Century||An example of how cooperation on trans-border rivers since 2002 has contributed positively to building mutual understanding and trust. The Indian side highly appreciates the assistance extended by China on the provision of flood season hydrological data, which has assisted India in ensuring the safety and security of its population in the regions along these rivers.|
|2010||Joint Communique||To promote and enhance cooperation in the field of trans-border rivers. The two sides noted the good cooperation in the field of trans-border rivers. The Indian side appreciated the flood-season hydrological data and the assistance in emergency management provided by China.|
|2013||Joint Declaration||To strengthen further cooperation on trans-border rivers. To cooperate through the ELM on provision of flood-season hydrological data and emergency management and exchange views on other issues of mutual interest. India expressed appreciation to China for providing flood-season hydrological data and the assistance in emergency management.|
|2013||Joint Declaration on Future Development Vision of Strategic Cooperative Partnership||To further strengthen cooperation, within the ELM, and work together on provision of flood-season hydrological data and emergency management, and exchange views on other issues of mutual interest. Deeply appreciated the resources and efforts by China in making available data on and emergency management of the trans-border rivers. Welcomed the signing of a MOU on Strengthening Cooperation on Trans-border Rivers.|
|2014||Joint Declaration on Building a Closer Partnership for Development||Within the ELM, to cooperate on hydrological data provision, emergency management, and exchange views on other issues of mutual interest. The Indian side appreciated the flood-season hydrological data and the assistance in emergency management provided by the Chinese side.|
|2015||Joint Declaration||To cooperate on provision of flood-season hydrological data and emergency management, and exchange views on other issues of mutual interest, within the ELM. The Indian side appreciated the flood-season hydrological data and the assistance in emergency management provided by the Chinese side.|
© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).