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Open AccessArticle

Statistical Analysis of Bed Load Transport over an Armored Bed Layer with Cluster Microforms

by Zhenhui Zhu 1,2, Shiyan Zhang 1,* and Dong Chen 1,2,*
1
Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(10), 2082; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102082
Received: 9 August 2019 / Revised: 1 October 2019 / Accepted: 3 October 2019 / Published: 6 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Hydraulics)
River engineers have long been challenged by the need to predict sediment transport, especially over armored riverbeds. This study investigates the statistical properties of bed load transport over an armored bed layer with cluster microforms in laboratory experiments. Particle clusters on the sediment bed were formed by widely graded particles under constant flow. A series of key kinematic parameters computed from particle trajectories recorded by a digital camcorder, including mean squared particle displacement (MSD), particle number activity, particle velocities, step length, and rest period, were analyzed. The scaling growth of the MSD with time showed that the particle diffusion regime was superdiffusive at small time scales, but became subdiffusive at larger time scales. The particle number activity follows a negative binomial distribution, and the probability distributions of streamwise and transverse particle velocities displayed heavy asymptotic tails, which indicates the particle clusters might exert a dual impact on bed load transport: some particles are accelerated in the preferential paths between particle clusters, while others were obstructed by the particle clusters. In addition, the bed load diffusion regime varied with observation time scales. The findings of this study can gain insight into the bed load transport processes over armored riverbeds.
Keywords: particle clusters; bed load transport; heavy-tailed distribution; particle diffusion; anomalous transport particle clusters; bed load transport; heavy-tailed distribution; particle diffusion; anomalous transport
MDPI and ACS Style

Zhu, Z.; Zhang, S.; Chen, D. Statistical Analysis of Bed Load Transport over an Armored Bed Layer with Cluster Microforms. Water 2019, 11, 2082.

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