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Open AccessArticle

N-Nitrosodimethylamine Formation from Treatment of Seasonally and Spatially Varying Source Water

1
Department of Geosciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA
2
Graduate School of Engineering, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521, Japan
3
Division of Earth and Environmental Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan
4
Essential Environmental & Engineering Systems, Huntington Beach, CA 92649, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(10), 2019; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102019
Received: 6 August 2019 / Revised: 11 September 2019 / Accepted: 27 September 2019 / Published: 28 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contaminant Transport and Fate)
N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is a disinfection by-product (DBP) that has been classified as a probable human carcinogen in multiple risk assessments. NDMA presence in drinking water is widespread and dependent on source water, disinfectant type, precursors, and water treatment strategies. The objectives of this study were to investigate NDMA formation potential in a modeled monochloramine water treatment plant (WTP) fed by seasonally and spatially varying source water; and to optimize DBP precursor removal by combining conventional and additional treatment techniques. After NDMA analysis, it was found that NDMA formation was significantly dependent on source water type and monochloramine contact time (CT); e.g., at 24 h CT, Cork Brook produced 12.2 ng/L NDMA and Bailey Brook produced 4.2 ng/L NDMA, compared with 72 h CT, Cork Brook produced 4.1 ng/L NDMA and Bailey Brook produced 3.4 ng/L NDMA. No correlations were found between traditional DBP precursors such as total organic carbon and total nitrogen, and the formation of NDMA. The laboratory bench-top treatment system was highly effective at removing traditional DBP precursors, highlighting the need for WTPs to alter their current treatment methods to best accommodate the complex system of DBP control. View Full-Text
Keywords: NDMA; disinfection by-product formation; source water; natural water; precursors; treatment; water quality NDMA; disinfection by-product formation; source water; natural water; precursors; treatment; water quality
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Meadows, M.C.; Pradhanang, S.M.; Fujioka, T.; Kodamatani, H.; Leddy, M.B.; Boving, T.B. N-Nitrosodimethylamine Formation from Treatment of Seasonally and Spatially Varying Source Water. Water 2019, 11, 2019.

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