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Article

Impact of Vegetation, Substrate, and Irrigation on the Energy Performance of Green Roofs in a Mediterranean Climate

CERIS, Department of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Georesources (DECivil), Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
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Water 2019, 11(10), 2016; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102016
Received: 25 July 2019 / Revised: 23 September 2019 / Accepted: 24 September 2019 / Published: 27 September 2019
Green roof energy performance is still a challenging topic, namely in a Mediterranean climate since it depends on building characteristics, roof type, and also on climatic conditions. This paper evaluates green roof buildings’ energy needs and use in a Mediterranean climate. An experimentally calibrated numerical model was used to perform a parametric analysis and identify the influence of key parameters in heating and cooling energy needs, as well as annual energy use. The vegetation height, the soil depth, and LAI (leaf area index) were identified as the key parameters. The irrigation levels were also crucial for the energy performance of green roofs, particularly during the summer period and in a Mediterranean climate. Heating energy needs were mainly associated with soil depth due to higher thermal resistance, whereas cooling energy needs depended mostly on LAI, which influenced evapotranspiration and shading effects. A reduction of soil depth from 1.0 m to 0.1 m increased winter energy needs by up to 140%, while low values of LAI increased cooling energy needs up to 365%. Annual energy use in a Mediterranean climate showed a higher dependence on soil depth, with oscillations of up to 115%, followed by LAI and vegetation height. Finally, irrigation levels impacted the annual energy use more significantly for lower watering flow rates. Reductions of about 500% were obtained when changing watering flowrates from 0 mm/day to 6 mm/day in intensive green roofs. Since green roofs with native species expect low values of watering, this may increase their cooling energy needs. View Full-Text
Keywords: green roofs; Mediterranean climate; energy performance; experimentally validated building energy simulations green roofs; Mediterranean climate; energy performance; experimentally validated building energy simulations
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gomes, M.G.; M. Silva, C.; Valadas, A.S.; Silva, M. Impact of Vegetation, Substrate, and Irrigation on the Energy Performance of Green Roofs in a Mediterranean Climate. Water 2019, 11, 2016. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102016

AMA Style

Gomes MG, M. Silva C, Valadas AS, Silva M. Impact of Vegetation, Substrate, and Irrigation on the Energy Performance of Green Roofs in a Mediterranean Climate. Water. 2019; 11(10):2016. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102016

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gomes, M. G.; M. Silva, C.; Valadas, Ana S.; Silva, Marcelo. 2019. "Impact of Vegetation, Substrate, and Irrigation on the Energy Performance of Green Roofs in a Mediterranean Climate" Water 11, no. 10: 2016. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102016

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