Relationship between Landform Development and Lake Water Recharge in the Badain Jaran Desert, China
2. Materials and Methods
3.1. Arcuate Steps on the Slopes of Megadunes
3.2. Depressions Caused by Surface Runoff
3.3. Multi-Stage fans Deposited by Spring Water
3.4. Secondary Formation of Carbonate and Sulfate
3.5. Groundwater Overflow Zone at the Leading and Trailing Edges of Lakes
3.6. Water Content and Seepage
3.7. Particle-size Composition of the Studied Landforms and Aeolian sand
3.8. Water Balance Assessment of the Megadune-Lake Region
- Total area of the megadune-lake region of the Badain Jaran Desert, which is ~29,242.7 km2 .
- Annual precipitation = ~90 mm.
- Area of slopes with gradient >20° = 4719.77 km2 (29,242.7 km2 × 16.14%).
- Average lake area throughout the year = 17.72 km2 .
- Area covered by megadunes vegetation = 1225.26 km2 ((29,242.7 km2 − 17.72 km2 − 4719.77 km2) × 5%).
- Area of seepage springs = ~2.9 km2 .
- Area of bare sand dunes that can be used to calculate recharge. This was calculated as follows: 29,242.7 km2 − 4719.77 km2 − 1225.26 km2 − 2.9 km2 − 17.72 km2 = 23,277.05 km2.
- Annual precipitation recharge of sand layer water. The annual rainfall in the region was average in 2010 (105 mm) and below average in 2011 (75 mm). During both 2010 and 2011 there were only two precipitation events exceeding 15 mm: 27.8 mm and 25.0 mm in 2010 and 19.7 mm and 15.8 mm in 2011 . Based on the results of previous studies [34,35], such events are critical for determining whether or not the sand layer receives an effective water supply from precipitation. The annual recharge of precipitation to sand layer water for the period of 2010–2011 can be calculated as follows:[(25 mm − 15 mm) + (27.8 mm − 15 mm) + (15.8 mm − 15 mm) + (19.7 mm − 15 mm)]/2 = 14.2 mm.Because of the low precipitation in 2011, the annual recharge of precipitation to sand layer water in the region should be >14.2 mm, which represents only 15.8% available to recharge the groundwater. Notably, the recharge rate of soil water to groundwater is substantially lower than that in Mu Us sandy land .
- Total annual evaporation capacity of seepage springs. Water surface evaporation for the megadune-lake region has been estimated as 1200–1550 mm [14,37]. The seepage springs can maintain the megadunes microtopography in a wet condition for a long time; however, their annual evaporation will not exceed that from the water surface. Therefore, 1550 mm was used as the annual evaporation of seepage springs in the region. The total evaporation capacity of seepage springs is ~4,495,000 m3 (2.9 km2 × 1550 mm).
- Total annual evaporation capacity of lakes. The total lake annual evaporation capacity is estimated to be 1550 mm . Using this value, the total annual evaporation capacity of the lakes can be calculated as: 17.72 km2 × (1550 mm − 90 mm) = 25,871,200 m3.
- Annual transpiration and evaporation of the vegetated area. In order to obtain reliable results, the mean annual rainfall value of 90 mm (for 2010 and 2011) was assumed to be equal to annual transpiration and evaporation in the vegetated area. Thus, total annual transpiration and evaporation of the vegetated area is 110,273,400 m3 (1225.26 km2 × 90 mm).
- Total annual precipitation recharge of bare sand dunes, which can be used to calculate recharge. This is calculated as: 23,277.05 km2 × 14.2 mm = 330,534,110 m3.
4.1. Landform Development and Water Source of the Megadunes
4.2. Implications of the Water Content of the sand Layer
4.3. Significance of the Groundwater Overflow Zone
4.4. Mechanism by Which Groundwater is Supplemented by Rainfall
Conflicts of Interest
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|Moisture content in drill A (%)||7.8||7.2||5.4||7.1||4.7|
|Moisture content in drill B (%)||6.3||6.7||7.2||7.6||5.6|
|Sample Types||Sample Number||Coarse Sand (2.0–0.5 mm)||Medium Sand (0.5–0.25 mm)||Fine Sand (0.25–0.1 mm)||Very Fine Sand (0.1–0.05 mm)||Mean Mz||Mean σ||Mean Kg|
|Coarse particle layers of multi-stage fans||10||7.1||39.6||49.6||3.9||1.94||0.76||0.96|
|Fine particle layers of the multi-stage fans||10||4.5||26.9||60.8||8.1||2.23||0.49||0.95|
|Normal aeolian sand layer||26||3.1||41.0||54.0||1.9||2.08||0.53||0.96|
|surface coarse layer of mega dune||26||12.6||47.5||39.4||0.5||1.83||0.56||0.96|
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Yue, D.-P.; Zhao, J.-B.; Ma, Y.-D.; Huang, X.-G.; Shao, T.-J.; Luo, X.-Q.; Ma, A.-H. Relationship between Landform Development and Lake Water Recharge in the Badain Jaran Desert, China. Water 2019, 11, 1999. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11101999
Yue D-P, Zhao J-B, Ma Y-D, Huang X-G, Shao T-J, Luo X-Q, Ma A-H. Relationship between Landform Development and Lake Water Recharge in the Badain Jaran Desert, China. Water. 2019; 11(10):1999. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11101999Chicago/Turabian Style
Yue, Da-Peng, Jing-Bo Zhao, Yan-Dong Ma, Xiao-Gang Huang, Tian-Jie Shao, Xiao-Qing Luo, and Ai-Hua Ma. 2019. "Relationship between Landform Development and Lake Water Recharge in the Badain Jaran Desert, China" Water 11, no. 10: 1999. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11101999