Next Article in Journal
Numerical Simulation of Hydraulic Jumps. Part 1: Experimental Data for Modelling Performance Assessment
Next Article in Special Issue
Progress in Water Footprint Assessment: Towards Collective Action in Water Governance
Previous Article in Journal
Water Footprint and Virtual Water Accounting for China Using a Multi-Regional Input-Output Model
Previous Article in Special Issue
Water Footprint Accounting Along the Wheat-Bread Value Chain: Implications for Sustainable and Productive Water Use Benchmarks
Open AccessArticle

Water Footprint and Crop Water Usage of Oil Palm (Eleasis guineensis) in Central Kalimantan: Environmental Sustainability Indicators for Different Crop Age and Soil Conditions

1
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Stiper Agricultural University, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
2
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Bogor Agricultural University, Jawa Barat 16680, Indonesia
3
Research Centre PT Bumitama Gunajaya Agro, Pundu, Kotawaringin Timur, Kalimantan Tengah 74359, Indonesia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010035
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 25 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Water Footprint Assessment)
  |  
PDF [1334 KB, uploaded 25 December 2018]
  |  

Abstract

Various issues related to oil palm production, such as biodiversity, drought, water scarcity, and water and soil resource exploitation, have become major challenges for environmental sustainability. The water footprint method indicates that the quantity of water used by plants to produce one biomass product could become a parameter to assess the environmental sustainability for a plantation. The objective of this study is to calculate the water footprint of oil palm on a temporal scale based on root water uptake with a specific climate condition under different crop age and soil type conditions, as a means to assess environmental sustainability. The research was conducted in Pundu village, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. The methodology adopted in carrying out this study consisted of monitoring soil moisture, rainfall, and the water table, and estimating reference evapotranspiration (ETo), root water uptake, and the oil palm water footprint. Based on the study, it was shown that the oil palm water usage in the observation area varies with different crop ages and soil types from 3.07–3.73 mm/day, with the highest contribution of oil palm water usage was in the first root zone which correlates to the root density distribution. The total water footprint values obtained were between 0.56 and 1.14 m3/kg for various plant ages and soil types. This study also found that the source of green water from rainfall on the upper oil palm root zone delivers the highest contribution to oil palm root water uptake than the blue water from groundwater on the bottom layer root zone. View Full-Text
Keywords: water footprint; root water uptake; oil palm (Eleasis guineensis); crop ages; soil type; environmental sustainability water footprint; root water uptake; oil palm (Eleasis guineensis); crop ages; soil type; environmental sustainability
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed
Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Safitri, L.; Hermantoro, H.; Purboseno, S.; Kautsar, V.; Saptomo, S.K.; Kurniawan, A. Water Footprint and Crop Water Usage of Oil Palm (Eleasis guineensis) in Central Kalimantan: Environmental Sustainability Indicators for Different Crop Age and Soil Conditions. Water 2019, 11, 35.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top