- freely available
Water 2019, 11(1), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010144
2. Data and Methods
2.1. Storm Surge Model (JMA)
2.2. Coastal Inundation Model
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Results of Storm Surge Coastal Inundation Model
3.2. Model Results Analysis
3.2.1. Effect of Elevation on Storm Surge Flow Depth
3.2.2. Effect of Elevation on Storm Surge Velocity
3.2.3. Effect of Coastal Shape on Storm Surge Flow Depth
3.2.4. Effect of Coastal Shape on Storm Surge Velocity
3.2.5. Effect of Angle of Approach on Flow Depth
- Flow depth analysis in terms of elevation indicated that deeper flooding events were experienced in areas with lower ground elevations (estuaries, low elevation sand lines), whereas coastal areas with higher elevations were not inundated even when the area was directly located on the coast.
- Flow velocity analysis in terms of elevation indicated that the maximum velocity increased in the center of catchments with higher elevation and equal distance from storm surge inflows; floods flowed faster in areas that would drive the fluid to compress.
- Flow depth analysis in terms of coastal shape indicated that some areas are flooded more than others, even with the same elevation, due to differences in coastal shape. This is due to the fact that fluid is more likely to be dispersed when hitting a convex coast, whereas fluid hitting a concave coast is likely to accumulate in the center, leading to a greater extent of flooding.
- Flow velocity analysis in terms of coastal shape revealed that in some regions with same level of elevation, flood velocity appeared to be faster in the central areas of catchment that had inflow parameters in all directions.
- Flow depth analysis in terms of a typhoon’s angle of approach indicated that extents are farther in the areas that are directly hit by the typhoon; coastlines that are perpendicular to the to the typhoon’s directional approach displayed a greater tendency to produce storm surges to a greater extent than those that are parallel to the coast.
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