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Open AccessArticle

Combination of River Bank Filtration and Solar-driven Electro-Chlorination Assuring Safe Drinking Water Supply for River Bound Communities in India

1
AUTARCON GmbH, D-34117 Kassel, Germany
2
International Centre for Ecological Engineering, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, West Bengal 741235, India
3
Division of Water Sciences, University of Applied Sciences Dresden, D-01069 Dresden, Germany
4
Uttarakhand State Water Supply and Sewerage Organization, Uttarakhand Jal Sansthan (UJS), Dehradun 263139, India
5
Technologiezentrum Wasser (TZW) Karlsruhe, D-01326 Dresden, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(1), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010122
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 14 December 2018 / Accepted: 2 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Efficiency of Bank Filtration and Post-Treatment)
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PDF [3652 KB, uploaded 11 January 2019]
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Abstract

The supply of safe drinking water in rural developing areas is still a matter of concern, especially if surface water, shallow wells, and wells with non-watertight headworks are sources for drinking water. Continuously changing raw water conditions, flood and extreme rainfall events, anthropogenic pollution, and lacking electricity supply in developing regions require new and adapted solutions to treat and render water safe for distribution. This paper presents the findings of a pilot test conducted in Uttarakhand, India, where a river bank filtration (RBF) well was combined with a solar-driven and online-monitored electro-chlorination system, treating fecal-contaminated Ganga River water. While the RBF well provided nearly turbidity- and pathogen-free water as well as buffered fluctuations in source water qualities, the electro-chlorination system provided disinfection based on the inline conversion of chloride to hypochlorous acid. The conducted sampling campaigns provided complete disinfection (>6.7 log) and the adequate supply of residual disinfectant (0.27 ± 0.17 mg/L). The system could be further optimized to local conditions and allows the supply of microbial-safe water for river bound communities, even during monsoon periods and under the low natural chloride regimes typical for this region. View Full-Text
Keywords: electro-chlorination; smart villages; disinfection; river bank filtration; rural water supply, online monitoring electro-chlorination; smart villages; disinfection; river bank filtration; rural water supply, online monitoring
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Otter, P.; Malakar, P.; Sandhu, C.; Grischek, T.; Sharma, S.K.; Kimothi, P.C.; Nüske, G.; Wagner, M.; Goldmaier, A.; Benz, F. Combination of River Bank Filtration and Solar-driven Electro-Chlorination Assuring Safe Drinking Water Supply for River Bound Communities in India. Water 2019, 11, 122.

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