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Open AccessArticle

Determination of Tile Drain Discharge under Variable Hydraulic Conditions

1
Department of Environmental Improvement, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
2
Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(1), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010120
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 1 January 2019 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management and Governance)
The aim of this study was an investigation of tile drain flow velocity under variable hydraulic conditions and of tile drain discharge using an ultrasonic flow meter. There is an essential variance between velocity values measured by an ultrasonic flow meter and reference values determined by a laboratory method. Differences result from specific measurement conditions, which appear in drainage pipe systems. The values of velocity measured by ultrasonic flow meters were higher than the reference values for three examined flow phases: Free, transient, and pressured flow. The discharge from a tile drain working on a partially filled up pipe in no-pressure conditions should be calculated by an adapted equation based on the California pipe method, whereas the discharge from a completely filled up drain pipe working over pressure should be calculated as a ratio between 0.428 times the measured velocity and the pipe cross-section area. View Full-Text
Keywords: flow velocity; drain discharge; ultrasonic flowmeter flow velocity; drain discharge; ultrasonic flowmeter
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Szejba, D.; Bajkowski, S. Determination of Tile Drain Discharge under Variable Hydraulic Conditions. Water 2019, 11, 120.

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