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Water 2019, 11(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010011

Upscaling Urban Recycled Water Schemes: An Analysis of the Presence of Required Governance Conditions in the City of Sabadell (Spain)

1
Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Domplein 29, 3512 JE Utrecht, The Netherlands
2
International Institute of Social Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Kortenaerkade 12, 2518 AX The Hague, The Netherlands
3
Centre de Recerca Ecològica i Aplicacions Forestals, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Plaça Cívica, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 19 December 2018 / Published: 21 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
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Abstract

Cleaning wastewater and using it again for secondary purposes is a measure to address water scarcity in urban areas. However, upscaling of recycled water schemes is challenging, and little is known about the governance conditions which are required for this. This paper addresses this knowledge gap. Based on a review of governance literature we suggest that five governance conditions are necessary for a successful upscaling of recycled water schemes: (1) policy leadership, (2) policy coordination, (3) availability of financial resources, (4) awareness of a problem, and (5) the presence of a public forum. We applied these concepts in a case study on the upscaling of a recycled water scheme in Sabadell, Spain. We reviewed policy documents, conducted a set of 21 semi-structured interviews, and attended two policy meetings about the subject. Our results suggest that Sabadell meets the required conditions for upscaling reused water to a certain extent. However, a public forum is not well-developed. We discuss the implications of this and conclude with some suggestions for future research and some lessons for other cities that plan to upscale their recycled water schemes. View Full-Text
Keywords: water recycle; upscaling; water governance; water availability; climate change adaptation water recycle; upscaling; water governance; water availability; climate change adaptation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Pinyol Alberich, J.; Mukhtarov, F.; Dieperink, C.; Driessen, P.; Broekman, A. Upscaling Urban Recycled Water Schemes: An Analysis of the Presence of Required Governance Conditions in the City of Sabadell (Spain). Water 2019, 11, 11.

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