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Open AccessArticle

Evaluating Equity and Inclusion in Access to Water and Sanitation for Persons Living with HIV/AIDS in Wukro, Ethiopia

1
Faculty of Engineering, UPV-EHU, 20018 San Sebastian, Spain
2
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
3
ITA Instituto Tecnológico del Agua, Polytechnic University of Valencia, 46022 Valencia, Spain
4
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(9), 1237; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091237
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance)
For more than a decade, foreign aid-supported water interventions focusing on an increase in household private connections have been implemented in the small urban center of Wukro. However, little has been investigated about the effectiveness of these interventions in achieving equitable and inclusive access to water and sanitation for all, including the most vulnerable. With this purpose, a cross-sectional comparative analysis of service provision between the HIV-infected population (n = 199) and non-infected population (n = 199) was undertaken. Findings suggest significant inequalities regarding the primary water source, monthly expenditure in water, water consumption, and time employed to fetch water, as well as the type of toilet facility, number of users, and the time employed to access it. Results also show a reported feeling of discrimination with regard to service provision within the HIV-positive population. This study provides evidence on local-scale interventions increasing the number of household water connections but overlooking the pursuit of equity and inclusion for the most vulnerable. The study also presents recommendations on how to specifically target the needs of persons living with HIV/AIDS in order to achieve equitable and inclusive access to water and sanitation for all. View Full-Text
Keywords: equity; inclusion; water intervention; sanitation intervention; PLWHA equity; inclusion; water intervention; sanitation intervention; PLWHA
MDPI and ACS Style

Jimenez-Redal, R.; Holowko, N.; Almandoz, J.; Soriano, J.; Arregui, F.; Magrinya, F. Evaluating Equity and Inclusion in Access to Water and Sanitation for Persons Living with HIV/AIDS in Wukro, Ethiopia. Water 2018, 10, 1237. https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091237

AMA Style

Jimenez-Redal R, Holowko N, Almandoz J, Soriano J, Arregui F, Magrinya F. Evaluating Equity and Inclusion in Access to Water and Sanitation for Persons Living with HIV/AIDS in Wukro, Ethiopia. Water. 2018; 10(9):1237. https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091237

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jimenez-Redal, Ruben; Holowko, Natalie; Almandoz, Jabier; Soriano, Javier; Arregui, Francisco; Magrinya, Francesc. 2018. "Evaluating Equity and Inclusion in Access to Water and Sanitation for Persons Living with HIV/AIDS in Wukro, Ethiopia" Water 10, no. 9: 1237. https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091237

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