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Open AccessArticle

Recent Changes in the Occurrences and Damages of Floods and Droughts in the United States

School of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Waihuan Xi Road, Guangzhou 510006, China
Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX13QY, UK
School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, Oxford OX13QY, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(9), 1109;
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 17 August 2018 / Accepted: 18 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
In this study, we compile and analyse 136,920 records of flood and 50,967 records of drought from a survey-based database to investigate recent changes in annual occurrence and economical cost in the United States. Results show that an average of 6520 floods has occurred per year during 1996–2016, with annual mean economic losses up to 3986 million US dollars, while 2427 drought events/year are recorded causing an average loss of 1684 million US dollars per year. Importantly, we found there is no evident changing tendency in annual economic damages of floods and droughts, despite an upward trend in their annual occurrences. This could be partly explained by changes in regional vulnerabilities, as indirectly reflected by the ratio of damaging events to total number of events experienced and the average damage per event. Spatially, vulnerability to droughts has decreased in most of the country, while increased vulnerability to floods is observed in a number of states. Despite limitations from the records and incomplete characterization of vulnerability, this study has great implications for targeted mitigation and adaptation, through identifying the regions that are most vulnerable to floods and droughts respectively and highlighting the contrasting patterns in regional vulnerability to floods and droughts. View Full-Text
Keywords: floods; droughts; damages; hazard; vulnerability floods; droughts; damages; hazard; vulnerability
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Zhou, Q.; Leng, G.; Peng, J. Recent Changes in the Occurrences and Damages of Floods and Droughts in the United States. Water 2018, 10, 1109.

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