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Open AccessArticle

Groundwater Hydrochemical Zoning in Inland Plains and its Genetic Mechanisms

College of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, China
Engineering Technology Institute for Groundwater Numerical Simulation and Contamination Control, Jinan 250022, China
Shandong Insititute of Geological Survey, Jinan 250014, China
Shandong Provincial Bureal of Geology and Mineral Resources, Jinan 250013, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(6), 752;
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 30 May 2018 / Accepted: 6 June 2018 / Published: 8 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
Pore water in inland plain areas, generally having poor water quality, contain complex hydrochemical properties. In order to examine groundwater chemical composition formation characteristics, groundwater in the Jiyang area of Lubei Plain was studied using stratified monitoring of drilling, analysis of water level and water quality, isotope analysis, ion ratio coefficient and isothermal adsorption experiments, hydrochemical characteristics, and analysis of variations in different shallow depths. Results show that: (1) Numerous hydrochemistry types are present in the diving. Along with the direction of groundwater flow, total dissolved solids (TDS) of diving in the study area generally increases and the hydrochemical type changes from the HCO3 type to the HCO3·SO4 type, Cl·HCO3 type and the Cl·SO4 type. (2) Shallow brackish water and freshwater in the horizontal direction are alternately distributed, and shallow brackish water is distributed in the area between old channels, showing sporadic spots or bands, whose hydrochemistry type is predominantly Cl·SO4-Na·Mg·Ca. (3) Affected by the sedimentary environment, hydrodynamic conditions and other factors; diving, middle brackish water and deep freshwater are vertically deposited in the study area. The dynamics of middle brackish water quality are stable due to the sedimentary environment and clay deposits. The hydrochemistry types of middle brackish water are mainly Cl·SO4-Mg·Na and SO4·Cl-Na·Mg, while the deep confined water is dominated by HCO3. (4) The optimal adsorption isotherms of Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ in groundwater from clay, with a thickness raging from 6–112 m, conformed to the Henry equation and the Langmuir equation. The retardation of Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ in groundwater differed with differing depths of the clay deposit. The trend of change in retardation strength correlates strongly with the TDS of groundwater. Groundwater in the inland plain area is affected by complicated hydrogeochemical processes; in addition, leaching, cation exchange, evaporative concentration and clay retardation have an important influence on the horizontal and vertical zonation of groundwater chemical components. View Full-Text
Keywords: inland saltwater; retardation; horizontal zonation; vertical zonation; hydrogeochemistry inland saltwater; retardation; horizontal zonation; vertical zonation; hydrogeochemistry
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Xing, L.; Huang, L.; Hou, X.; Yang, L.; Chi, G.; Xu, J.; Zhu, H. Groundwater Hydrochemical Zoning in Inland Plains and its Genetic Mechanisms. Water 2018, 10, 752.

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