Next Article in Journal
Evolution of Surface Hydrology in the Sahelo-Sudanian Strip: An Updated Review
Next Article in Special Issue
Optimization of Nitrogen Removal in Solid Carbon Source SND for Treatment of Low-Carbon Municipal Wastewater with RSM Method
Previous Article in Journal
A Location Intelligence System for the Assessment of Pluvial Flooding Risk and the Identification of Storm Water Pollutant Sources from Roads in Suburbanised Areas
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2018, 10(6), 747; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060747

The 1987–1989 Phytoplankton Bloom in Kaneohe Bay

1
Department of Environmental Sciences, College of the Coast and Environment, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA
2
National Institute of Polar Research, 10-3 Midori-Cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190_8518, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 6 June 2018 / Published: 8 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Pollution and Treatment: Challenges and Opportunities)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2044 KB, uploaded 8 June 2018]   |  

Abstract

A remarkable bloom of phytoplankton occurred in the southeast sector (SE) of Kaneohe Bay from 1987 through 1989. During the bloom, concentrations of chlorophyll a at the former site of the Kaneohe municipal wastewater treatment plant outfall averaged a little more than 2 mg m–3 for a period of 40 months. The increase of chl a was accompanied by a roughly twofold increase in the percentage of chl a accounted for by cells retained on a 35-micron filter, a drawdown of silicate concentrations from roughly 10 μM to 3–4 μM, an increase of nitrate concentrations from roughly 0.5 to more than 3 μM, and an increase of phosphate concentrations from roughly 0.2 to 0.5 μM. Extraordinarily heavy rains on 31 December 1987 led to flooding and land runoff that briefly raised chl a concentrations in the bay to as high as 17 mg m–3, but the bloom in question developed more than one year before the 1987 New Year’s Eve flood. It was not caused by unusually heavy rainfall: the average rainfall during 1987–1989 was only 10% above the long-term average. Instead, the bloom appears to have been caused by a leak in the sanitary sewer line that was previously used to discharge secondary treated sewage into Kaneohe Bay. Ultimately, leaks in the sanitary sewer lines maintained by the City and County of Honolulu led to legal action and a consent decree that required upgrading and the renovation of the wastewater collection system. View Full-Text
Keywords: phytoplankton; Kaneohe Bay; bloom; nutrients; sewage phytoplankton; Kaneohe Bay; bloom; nutrients; sewage
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Laws, E.; Taguchi, S. The 1987–1989 Phytoplankton Bloom in Kaneohe Bay. Water 2018, 10, 747.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top