Next Article in Journal
Matching Ecosystem Functions with Adaptive Ecosystem Management: Decision Pathways to Overcome Institutional Barriers
Next Article in Special Issue
A Longitudinal Microcosm Study on the Effects of Ageing on Potential Green Roof Hydrological Performance
Previous Article in Journal
Characteristics of Aggregate Size Distribution of Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron in Aqueous Suspensions and Its Effect on Transport Process in Porous Media
Previous Article in Special Issue
Observation and Estimation of Evapotranspiration from an Irrigated Green Roof in a Rain-Scarce Environment
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2018, 10(6), 671; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060671

Detention and Retention Behavior of Four Extensive Green Roofs in Three Nordic Climate Zones

1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), N-7491 Trondheim, Norway
2
Department of Water and Wastewater, The City of Oslo, N-0506 Oslo, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 23 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrological Performance of Green Roofs)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2690 KB, uploaded 25 May 2018]   |  

Abstract

Climate change coupled with increasing urbanization has made extensive green roofs, both for retrofitting and new developments, an attractive way to bring nature back to cities, while managing stormwater. This study has investigated extensive green roof retention and detention performance based on 3–8 years of field data from four Norwegian locations representing typical cold and wet Nordic climates, also comparing several different commercial configurations. Accumulated retention was found to be 11–30% annually and 22–46% in May through October. The performance was found to be strongly dependent in evapotranspiration and less dependent on material storage capacities. Estimates for available storage capacities for precipitation events larger than 5 mm are given and can be useful for design purposes. Median observed peak attenuation compared to the precipitation ranged from 65–90% depending on locations and configurations. The event-based approach for evaluating detention was found to be challenging due to the nature of the precipitation in the studied locations. An alternative approach using flow duration curves based on the observed time series was tested and found to give valuable information on runoff patterns from green roofs and to be useful for evaluating green roof performance in relation to local requirements. View Full-Text
Keywords: extensive green roof; hydrologic performance; Nordic climate; retention; detention; flow duration curves extensive green roof; hydrologic performance; Nordic climate; retention; detention; flow duration curves
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Johannessen, B.G.; Muthanna, T.M.; Braskerud, B.C. Detention and Retention Behavior of Four Extensive Green Roofs in Three Nordic Climate Zones. Water 2018, 10, 671.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top