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Open AccessArticle

Temperature Rise of Seawater Simulation under the Influence of Sediment-Water Heat Exchange

by Yaqiong Guo 1,2 and Jinrong Ma 1,*
1
State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing 210024, China
2
College of Harbor, Coastal and Offshore Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(5), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10050656
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 5 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
Alternating inundation and exposure of large tidal flats regions suggest that differences in thermodynamic properties of sediment and water cause an obvious heat exchange between the tidal sediment and seawater. Due to the influence of these sediment-water heat exchanges, the temperature of seawater changes dramatically in coastal areas. To understand and assess the effect of these heat exchanges on seawater temperature, a temperature rise numerical model is adopted to describe the influence of sediment-water heat exchange. The heat exchange is determined mainly by the temperature difference between the sediment and seawater. Thus, a sediment temperature model is developed to predict the temperature of tidal sediment and sediment-water heat flux under the alternating inundated or exposed condition. The surface sediment temperature, as the surface boundary condition of the model, is calculated by the heat balance at the surface, including solar radiation, atmospheric radiation, flat back radiation, latent, and sensible heat fluxes, soil heat flux, and sediment-water heat flux. The collected measured data of sediment temperature are used to verify the accuracy of the sediment temperature model. Based on this, the predicted sediment-water heat flux is provide to the temperature rise model. In the study site, the tidal flat of about 15.8 km2 is adopted in the sediment temperature model, and the simulated time is from 11 to 31 May 2017 to meet the collected climate data. The results show that a clear temperature rise water area comes out near the shore considering the heat flux. In warmer season, the maximum water temperature rise is about 2 °C in the local area, and in the envelope area of a 1 °C temperature rise can reach 2.8 km2. Certainly, the influence will be stronger after the simulated time moves into the middle of summer with stronger solar radiation. View Full-Text
Keywords: tidal flat; heat exchange; sediment temperature model; temperature rise numerical model tidal flat; heat exchange; sediment temperature model; temperature rise numerical model
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Guo, Y.; Ma, J. Temperature Rise of Seawater Simulation under the Influence of Sediment-Water Heat Exchange. Water 2018, 10, 656.

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