Based on statistical analysis, baseflow separation and wavelet analysis, this research was carried out in Shibetsu River Watershed (SRW), Eastern Hokkaido, Japan, to investigate the integrated effects of land use and topography on streamflow response to precipitation. The agriculture-dominated sub-watershed (AW) showed coupled flat topography/agriculture characteristics, the forest-dominated sub-watershed (FW) had coupled steep topography/forest characteristics, and the mixed agriculture-forested sub-watershed (AFW) had mixed flat topography/agriculture and steep topography/forest characteristics. Precipitation variability is characterized by 6-months and 1-year periods. Coupled forest land/steep topography of the FW can increase surface runoff due to forest surface soil water repellency and steep slope, and might receive more external water and higher precipitation that resulted in the highest baseflow and total streamflow compared with other sub-watersheds. Coupled forest land/steep topography can cause higher monthly streamflow variability than coupled agricultural land/flat topography. The FW streamflow is characterized by 3–4 months, 6 months, and 1-year periods. The AW streamflow is only characterized by 3–4 months and 6 months periods. Coupled agricultural land/flat topography produced similar magnitude of baseflow during snowmelt season (March–May) and rainfall season (July–September), which resulted in the losing of annual periodicity in AW streamflow. The coupled forest land/steep topography can increase synchronicity in precipitation and streamflow at annual and monthly scales than coupled agricultural land/flat topography, except in 2007 under wet antecedent conditions when pasture land has lower rainfall interception and lower surface soil infiltration capacity. The coupled forest land/steep topography can increase time lags between precipitation and streamflow compared to coupled agricultural land/flat topography.
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