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Water 2018, 10(2), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020173

Urban Estuarine Beaches and Urban Water Cycle Seepage: The Influence of Temporal Scales

1
CIIMAR—UP, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research of the University of Porto, Novo Edifício do Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Avenida General Norton de Matos, S/N, 4450-208 Matosinhos, Portugal
2
ICBAS—UP, Institute of Biomedical Sciences of Abel Salazar—University of Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 October 2017 / Revised: 18 December 2017 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 9 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Cycle Modelling and Management)
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Abstract

Temperate estuarine beaches are an asset to coastal cities. Being located within the transition zone where the river meets the sea can provide several environmental benefits such as warm water temperature during the summer, flat waters, protection from coastal upwelling-induced morning fog, as well as additional recreational and cultural values. In this study we address a major question—can the urban water cycle impair the water quality dynamics during a bathing season in a temperate Atlantic estuary (Douro, Northwest Portugal)? Water quality was assessed according to the EU legal criteria at different time scales. No daily, weekly, or monthly patterns for microbiological descriptors were found, which rather followed the hourly tidal dynamics. Quality decreased during high tide, affecting potentially 800+ beach-users during mid-summer weekends (4 m2 per person). Low water quality was transported upstream from highly populated urban areas. Therefore, the understanding of the dynamics of estuarine systems is essential to adapt the standard official approach, and the obtained results can be used to draw policy recommendations to improve the sampling strategy, aiming for more accurate assessment of the water quality to reduce the risk hazard of estuarine beaches. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban; beach; bathing; water quality; estuary; management urban; beach; bathing; water quality; estuary; management
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Costa-Dias, S.; Machado, A.; Teixeira, C.; Bordalo, A.A. Urban Estuarine Beaches and Urban Water Cycle Seepage: The Influence of Temporal Scales. Water 2018, 10, 173.

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