Next Article in Journal
Evaluation of Evapotranspiration Estimates in the Yellow River Basin against the Water Balance Method
Previous Article in Journal
Study on the Applicability of the Hargreaves Potential Evapotranspiration Estimation Method in CREST Distributed Hydrological Model (Version 3.0) Applications
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Swimming Pool Evaporative Water Loss and Water Use in the Balearic Islands (Spain)

Department of Geography and Geology, University of Salzburg, 5020 Salzburg, Austria
Department of Geography, University of the Balearic Islands, 07122 Palma, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(12), 1883;
Received: 24 September 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management and Governance)
PDF [3031 KB, uploaded 19 December 2018]


The Balearic Islands are a major Mediterranean tourist destination that features one of the greatest swimming pool densities within Europe. In this paper, standard meteorological data were combined with a diachronic swimming pool inventory to estimate water evaporation from swimming pools over the Balearic archipelago. Evaporation was estimated using an empirical equation designed for open-water surfaces. Results revealed a 32% increase in swimming pools’ water use by 2015. Evaporation from swimming pools added 9.6 L of water to touristic consumption per guest night and person, and represented 4.9% of the total urban water consumption. In 2015, almost 5 hm3 (5 billion L) were lost from pools across the Balearic Islands. In several densely urbanized areas, evaporative water loss from pools exceeded four million litres per square kilometre and year. The water needed to refill the total of 62,599 swimming pools and to counteract evaporative water loss is equivalent to 1.2 pools per year. Swimming pools have rapidly proliferated across the islands. We have expounded on this development in view of much-needed responsible water management across the islands. View Full-Text
Keywords: swimming pools; evaporation; tourism; water resources; Mediterranean; water conservation swimming pools; evaporation; tourism; water resources; Mediterranean; water conservation

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hof, A.; Morán-Tejeda, E.; Lorenzo-Lacruz, J.; Blázquez-Salom, M. Swimming Pool Evaporative Water Loss and Water Use in the Balearic Islands (Spain). Water 2018, 10, 1883.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top