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Water 2018, 10(12), 1808; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121808

Dynamic Modeling of Sediment Budget in Shihmen Reservoir Watershed in Taiwan

1
Department of Geography, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua 500, Taiwan
2
Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University, Kyoto 6110011, Japan
3
Research and Development Department, ThinkTron Ltd., Taipei 10087, Taiwan
4
Hydrotech Research Institute, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 November 2018 / Revised: 25 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 8 December 2018
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Abstract

Qualifying sediment dynamic in a reservoir watershed is essential for water resource management. This study proposed an integrated model of Grid-based Sediment Production and Transport Model (GSPTM) at watershed scale to evaluate the dynamic of sediment production and transport in the Shihmen Reservoir watershed in Taiwan. The GSPTM integrates several models, revealing landslide susceptibility and processes of rainfall–runoff, sediment production from landslide and soil erosion, debris flow and mass movement, and sediment transport. For modeling rainfall–runoff process, the tanks model gives surface runoff volume and soil water index as a hydrological parameter for a logistic regression-based landslide susceptibility model. Then, applying landslide model with a scaling relation of volume and area predicts landslide occurrence. The Universal Soil Loss Equation is then used for calculating soil erosion volume. Finally, incorporating runoff-routing algorithm and the Hunt’s model achieves the dynamical modeling of sediment transport. The landslide module was calibrated using a well-documented inventory during 10 heavy rainfall or typhoon events since 2004. A simulation of Typhoon Morakot event was performed to evaluate model’s performance. The results show the simulation agrees with the tendency of runoff and sediment discharge evolution with an acceptable overestimation of peak runoff, and predicts more precise sediment discharge than rating methods do. In addition, with clear distribution of sediment mass trapped in the mountainous area, the GSPTM also showed a sediment delivery ratio of 30% to quantify how much mass produced by landslide and soil erosion is still trapped in mountainous area. The GSPTM is verified to be useful and capable of modeling the dynamic of sediment production and transport at watershed level, and can provide useful information for sustainable development of Shihmen Reservoir watershed. View Full-Text
Keywords: reservoir watershed; sediment budget; typhoon; landslide; debris flow; soil water index; sediment routing; numerical modeling reservoir watershed; sediment budget; typhoon; landslide; debris flow; soil water index; sediment routing; numerical modeling
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Chen, Y.-C.; Wu, Y.-H.; Shen, C.-W.; Chiu, Y.-J. Dynamic Modeling of Sediment Budget in Shihmen Reservoir Watershed in Taiwan. Water 2018, 10, 1808.

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