Next Article in Journal
Potential of Deficit and Supplemental Irrigation under Climate Variability in Northern Togo, West Africa
Previous Article in Journal
Study on the Best Depth of Stilling Basin with Shallow-Water Cushion
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2018, 10(12), 1802; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121802

Water Taxation and Subsidy Analysis Based on Consumer Water Use Behavior and Water Sources Inside the Kathmandu Valley

1
Integrated Graduate School of Medicine, Engineering and Agricultural Sciences, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511, Japan
2
International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Nepal Office Shree Durbar, Pulchowk, Lalitpur GPO Box 8975, EPC 416, Nepal
3
Interdisciplinary Center for River Basin Environment (ICRE), University of Yamanashi, 4 Chome-4-37 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 October 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 7 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management and Governance)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1161 KB, uploaded 7 December 2018]   |  

Abstract

Groundwater is a major alternative water source used to cover the deficit of water supplied by Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited (KUKL), the authority responsible for water supply inside Kathmandu Valley. The groundwater price relative to that of KUKL affects priority of usage, and hence, groundwater resources sustainability. Therefore, taxation or subsidies on water sources become necessary based on their implication on environment. In this study, we evaluate volumetric water price, including initial investment, operation and maintenance (O&M) cost for different water sources, and compare it with the water price of KUKL, Kathmandu. The results show that shallow groundwater is cheaper than KUKL’s water. For groundwater sustainability, taxation on shallow groundwater seems necessary. For the recent water use of 97 LPCD (liters per capita per day) the taxation requirement is Nepalese Rupee (NRs.) 320/month (0.35% of total expenditure) if the initial investment for well construction and O&M cost are considered, and NRs. 626 (0.7% of total expenditure) if only O&M cost is considered. On the other hand, rainwater harvesting and recharging, the measures to cope with groundwater exploitation, might need 40% to 50% subsidy for their initial investment. View Full-Text
Keywords: comparative pricing; environmental taxation and subsidies; sustainable groundwater extraction; water competitors comparative pricing; environmental taxation and subsidies; sustainable groundwater extraction; water competitors
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ojha, R.; Thapa, B.R.; Shrestha, S.; Shindo, J.; Ishidaira, H.; Kazama, F. Water Taxation and Subsidy Analysis Based on Consumer Water Use Behavior and Water Sources Inside the Kathmandu Valley. Water 2018, 10, 1802.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top