In this paper, a study of the potential causes of the occurrence of high concentration of Enterococcus Faecalis
in surface water within urban areas in dry-weather conditions (DWCs) is presented. Two hypotheses were formulated: (1) undersized sewer system; and (2) groundwater infiltration into damaged sewer pipes. In both cases, more frequent combined sewer overflows (CSOs) may occur discharging untreated sewage into surface water. To evaluate the first hypothesis, a hydraulic model of a sewer was developed assuming a water-tight system. The simulation results show that CSOs never occur in DWCs but a rain event of intensity equal to 1/3 of one-year return period may trigger them. To evaluate the second hypothesis, a model combining sewer failure with groundwater level was developed to identify the sections of damaged sewer below the water table and, therefore, potentially affected by infiltration. The risk of infiltration exceeds 50% in almost half of the entire network even at the lowest calculated water table. Considering 50% of infiltration distributed throughout that part of the network, CSOs can occur also in DWCs.
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