Next Article in Journal
Attribution of Runoff Reduction in the Juma River Basin to Climate Variation, Direct Human Intervention, and Land Use Change
Previous Article in Journal
Accounting for the Spatio-Temporal Variability of Pollutant Processes in Stormwater TSS Modeling Based on Stochastic Approaches
Open AccessArticle

Groundwater-Sewer Interaction in Urban Coastal Areas

by , and *
Department of Civil, Environmental, and Ocean Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Water 2018, 10(12), 1774; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121774
Received: 4 November 2018 / Revised: 21 November 2018 / Accepted: 22 November 2018 / Published: 3 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
In this paper, a study of the potential causes of the occurrence of high concentration of Enterococcus Faecalis in surface water within urban areas in dry-weather conditions (DWCs) is presented. Two hypotheses were formulated: (1) undersized sewer system; and (2) groundwater infiltration into damaged sewer pipes. In both cases, more frequent combined sewer overflows (CSOs) may occur discharging untreated sewage into surface water. To evaluate the first hypothesis, a hydraulic model of a sewer was developed assuming a water-tight system. The simulation results show that CSOs never occur in DWCs but a rain event of intensity equal to 1/3 of one-year return period may trigger them. To evaluate the second hypothesis, a model combining sewer failure with groundwater level was developed to identify the sections of damaged sewer below the water table and, therefore, potentially affected by infiltration. The risk of infiltration exceeds 50% in almost half of the entire network even at the lowest calculated water table. Considering 50% of infiltration distributed throughout that part of the network, CSOs can occur also in DWCs. View Full-Text
Keywords: coastal cities; groundwater; infiltration; infrastructure; sewer; urban hydrology coastal cities; groundwater; infiltration; infrastructure; sewer; urban hydrology
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, T.; Su, X.; Prigiobbe, V. Groundwater-Sewer Interaction in Urban Coastal Areas. Water 2018, 10, 1774.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

1
Back to TopTop