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Water 2018, 10(11), 1576;

An Integrated Analysis of the Eutrophication Process in the Enxoé Reservoir within the DPSIR Framework

Centro de Ciência e Tecnologia do Ambiente e do Mar (MARETEC), Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
Centro de Investigação em Agronomia, Alimentos, Ambiente e Paisagem (LEAF), Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal
Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agrária e Veterinária (INIAV), Quinta do Marquês, Av. República, 2784-505 Oeiras, Portugal
Department of Biology, Institute of Earth Sciences (ICT), University of Évora, Largo dos Colegiais, 7000 Évora, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 October 2018 / Revised: 25 October 2018 / Accepted: 2 November 2018 / Published: 4 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1275 KB, uploaded 4 November 2018]   |  


The Enxoé reservoir in southern Portugal has been exhibiting the highest trophic state in the country since its early years of operation. The problem has attracted water managers’ and researchers’ attention as the reservoir is the water supply for two municipalities. Extensive research was thus conducted over the last few years, including field monitoring and modelling at the plot, catchment, and reservoir scales. This study now frames all partial findings within the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework to better understand the eutrophication process in the Enxoé reservoir. Agriculture and grazing were found to have a reduced role in the eutrophication of the reservoir, with annual sediment and nutrient loads being comparably smaller or similar to those reported for other Mediterranean catchments. Flash floods were the main mechanism for transporting particle elements to the reservoir, being in some cases able to carry up three times the average annual load. However, the main eutrophication mechanisms in the reservoir were P release from deposited sediment under anoxic conditions and the process of internal recycling of organic matter and nutrients. Reducing the P load from the catchment and deposited sediment could lead to a mesotrophic state level in the reservoir. However, this level would only be sustainable by limiting the P internal load ability to reach the photic zone. View Full-Text
Keywords: catchment; eutrophication; modelling; nutrients; trophic level. catchment; eutrophication; modelling; nutrients; trophic level.

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Ramos, T.B.; Darouich, H.; Gonçalves, M.C.; Brito, D.; Castelo Branco, M.A.; Martins, J.C.; Fernandes, M.L.; Pires, F.P.; Morais, M.; Neves, R. An Integrated Analysis of the Eutrophication Process in the Enxoé Reservoir within the DPSIR Framework. Water 2018, 10, 1576.

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