Iran faces climate disparities due to extreme topographic anomalies, the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf water bodies, influences from diverse air masses and moisture sources, and its considerable area. FLEXPART model has been utilized to determine the main marine and continental moisture sources for south-central (Shiraz box) and northeastern (Mashhad box) parts of Iran. The marine moisture sources directly influenced extreme drought and wet conditions in Shiraz and Mashhad boxes during the wet period, while no correlation was observed during the dry period. In addition to local components, extreme drought and wet conditions have also been influenced by the climatic teleconnections. Extreme drought conditions mainly occurred during the La Niña phase, while wet conditions mainly occurred during the El Niño phase. Scrutinizing the effect of marine moisture sources on the hydrology of water resources demonstrated that the moisture contribution from the Arabian Sea directly influenced the discharges of Chenar-rahdar (in the Shiraz box) and Kardeh (in the Mashhad box) rivers during the wet period. However, the Red Sea inversely correlated with the discharges of both rivers during the dry period. Hydrogeologists, hydrologists, and meteorologists can utilize the outputs of this survey to develop climatology and hydrology models in the future.
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