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Open AccessArticle

Evaluation of Water Scarcity in Selected Countries of the Middle East

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Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Management, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 169 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
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Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 169 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
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Department of Applied Ecology, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 169 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
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Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 169 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(10), 1482; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101482
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Water Use and Scarcity)
The primary goal of this article is to evaluate water scarcity in selected countries of the Middle-East and assess the impact on agricultural production. To begin with, the Weighted Anomaly Standardized Precipitation (WASP) Index from 1979 to 2017 was spatially computed for Iran, Iraq and Saudi Arabia. In order to demonstrate the effect of reduced levels of water, the water shortage situation in cities with the population higher than one million was examined. This was accomplished by utilizing the Composite Index approach to make water related statistics more intelligible. A projection for the years of 2020 to 2030 was created in order to demonstrate possible changes in the supply and demand for water in selected countries of the Middle-East. In regards to evaluating the economic effects of water shortages on agricultural sector, effects of lower precipitation on agricultural production in Iran, Iraq and Saudi Arabia were estimated. With ever-increasing urbanization, all countries are currently experiencing a moderate to high water risk. Our research points to excessively high water stress for most analyzed cities through the year 2030. Also, it is demonstrated how much precipitation decreases influence agricultural production in Iran, Iraq and Saudi Arabia. From the analyzed countries, some evidence is found that precipitation negatively influences crop production, primarily for Iran. View Full-Text
Keywords: agriculture; drought; economy; Middle-East; weighted anomaly standardized precipitation; Saudi Arabia; Iran; Iraq agriculture; drought; economy; Middle-East; weighted anomaly standardized precipitation; Saudi Arabia; Iran; Iraq
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Procházka, P.; Hönig, V.; Maitah, M.; Pljučarská, I.; Kleindienst, J. Evaluation of Water Scarcity in Selected Countries of the Middle East. Water 2018, 10, 1482.

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