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Atmosphere 2018, 9(9), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9090363

Impact of Air Mass Conditions and Aerosol Properties on Ice Nucleating Particle Concentrations at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch

1
Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETHZ, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
2
Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, 8600 Duebendorf, Switzerland
3
Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland
4
Institute for Earth Science, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 76100, Israel
Current address: Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research—Atmospheric Aerosol Research, KIT, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany.
Current address: Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001, Israel.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 1 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ice Nucleation in the Atmosphere)
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Abstract

Ice nucleation is the source of primary ice crystals in mixed-phase clouds. Only a small fraction of aerosols called ice nucleating particles (INPs) catalyze ice formation, with their nature and origin remaining unclear. In this study, we investigate potential predictor parameters of meteorological conditions and aerosol properties for INP concentrations at mixed-phase cloud condition at 242 K. Measurements were conducted at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (Switzerland, 3580 m a.s.l.), which is located predominantly in the free troposphere (FT) but can occasionally receive injections from the boundary layer (BLI). Measurements are taken during a long-term study of eight field campaigns, allowing for the first time an interannual (2014–2017) and seasonal (spring, summer, and winter) distinction of high-time-resolution INP measurements. We investigate ranked correlation coefficients between INP concentrations and meteorological parameters and aerosol properties. While a commonly used parameterization lacks in predicting the observed INP concentrations, the best INP predictor is the total available surface area of the aerosol particles, with no obvious seasonal trend in the relationship. Nevertheless, the predicting capability is less pronounced in the FT, which might be caused by ageing effects. Furthermore, there is some evidence of anthropogenic influence on INP concentrations during BLI. Our study contributes to an improved understanding of ice nucleation in the free troposphere, however, it also underlines that a knowledge gap of ice nucleation in such an environment exists. View Full-Text
Keywords: ice nucleation; free troposphere; INP parameterization ice nucleation; free troposphere; INP parameterization
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Lacher, L.; Steinbacher, M.; Bukowiecki, N.; Herrmann, E.; Zipori, A.; Kanji, Z.A. Impact of Air Mass Conditions and Aerosol Properties on Ice Nucleating Particle Concentrations at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 363.

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