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Atmosphere 2018, 9(9), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9090340

Size Distribution, Bioaccessibility and Health Risks of Indoor/Outdoor Airborne Toxic Elements Collected from School Office Room

State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Life Sciences, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering and Center of Materials Analysis, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing 210023, China
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Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 19 August 2018 / Accepted: 24 August 2018 / Published: 29 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Air Quality)
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Abstract

20 sets of indoor and outdoor size-segregated aerosol (SSA) samples (180 foils) were collected synchronously by using two 8 Stage Non-Viable Cascade Impactor from an office room in the central region of the megacity-Nanjing, China in winter and spring in 2016. The mass size distribution of SSAs was bimodal for outdoor SSAs and unimodal for indoor in both winter and spring. The crustal elements, such as K, Ca, Mg and Fe, were mainly distributed in the coarse fractions of SSAs while toxic elements such as As, Cd, Pb and Sb were enriched more in the fine fractions in both winter and spring. Moreover, indoor/outdoor (I/O) concentration ratios of SSAs and inorganic elements indicated the penetration of outdoor fine fractions of SSAs into indoor air. As, Pb, V and Mn showed higher inhalation bioaccessibility extracted by the artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF); while V, As, Sr and Cd showed higher inhalation bioaccessibility using the simulated lung fluid (SLF), suggesting differences in elemental inhalation bioaccessibility between ALF and SLF extraction. There were similar potential carcinogenic and accumulative non-carcinogenic risks via inhalation exposure to indoor and outdoor particle-bound toxic elements based on their bioaccessible concentrations. Therefore, the potential health risks to human posed by toxic elements in office rooms cannot be neglected via inhalation exposure of the fine airborne particles. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemical composition; size-dependent distribution; inhalation exposure; in vitro inhalation bioaccessibility procedures; risk-based assessment chemical composition; size-dependent distribution; inhalation exposure; in vitro inhalation bioaccessibility procedures; risk-based assessment
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Tang, Z.-J.; Hu, X.; Qiao, J.-Q.; Lian, H.-Z. Size Distribution, Bioaccessibility and Health Risks of Indoor/Outdoor Airborne Toxic Elements Collected from School Office Room. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 340.

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