Next Article in Journal
Long-Term Atmospheric Visibility Trends and Characteristics of 31 Provincial Capital Cities in China during 1957–2016
Previous Article in Journal
Extreme Wave Storms and Atmospheric Variability at the Spanish Coast of the Bay of Biscay
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Atmosphere 2018, 9(8), 317;

The Three-Dimensional Locating of VHF Broadband Lightning Interferometers

1,* , 2,* and 1
Laboratory of Lightning Physics and Protection Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
National Key Laboratory on Electromagnetic Environmental Effects and Electro-Optical Engineering, Army Engineering University, Nanjing 210007, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 June 2018 / Revised: 27 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology and Meteorology)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2347 KB, uploaded 13 August 2018]   |  


VHF (Very High Frequency) lightning interferometers can locate and observe lightning discharges with a high time resolution. Especially the appearance of continuous interferometers makes the 2-D location of interferometers further improve in time resolution and completeness. However, there is uncertainty in the conclusion obtained by simply analyzing the 2-D locating information. Without the support of other 3-D total lightning locating networks, the 2-station interferometer becomes an option to obtain 3-D information. This paper introduces a 3-D lightning location method of a 2-station broadband interferometer, which uses the theodolite wind measurement method for reference, and gives the simulation results of the location accuracy. Finally, using the multi-baseline continuous 2-D locating method and the 3-D locating method, the locating results of one intra-cloud flash and the statistical results of the initiation heights of 61 cloud-to-ground flashes and 80 intra-cloud flashes are given. The results show that the two-station interferometer has high observation accuracy on both sides of the connection between the two sites. The locating accuracy will deteriorate as the distance between the radiation source and the two stations increases or the height decreases. The actual locating results are similar to those of the existing VHF TDOA (Time Difference of Arrival) lightning locating network. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3-D lightning locating; VHF lightning interferometer; two-station interferometer; lightning 3-D lightning locating; VHF lightning interferometer; two-station interferometer; lightning

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, H.; Qiu, S.; Dong, W. The Three-Dimensional Locating of VHF Broadband Lightning Interferometers. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 317.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Atmosphere EISSN 2073-4433 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top