Next Article in Journal
Precipitation Preventing a Deficit of Readily Available Soil Water in Arable Soils in Poland
Previous Article in Journal
Hazardous Source Estimation Using an Artificial Neural Network, Particle Swarm Optimization and a Simulated Annealing Algorithm
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Atmosphere 2018, 9(4), 120;

Modelling of Basin Wide Daily Evapotranspiration with a Partial Integration of Remote Sensing Data

Hidrokonzalt Projektiranje Ltd., 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Water Management Institute, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 17 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology and Meteorology)
Full-Text   |   PDF [44259 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]   |  


Evapotranspiration (ET) is the most significant water balance component and is also a very complex component to evaluate in spatio–temporal scales. Remotely-sensed data greatly increases the accuracy of basin wide ET estimation but only in periods with available satellite images. This paper describes an attempt to estimate daily ET regardless of the availability of the satellite images. The method is based on application of the interpolated evaporative fraction (Λ) from “historical” satellite images to periods with no satellite data available. Basin wide daily ET is obtained by combining interpolated Λ and standard PET methods on meteorological stations. The reliability of such approach was evaluated by comparing the obtained daily ET to the SEBAL ET estimates through the analysis of residuals (Δ), standard deviations of residuals (σ) and the Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient (NSE) over the basin. The SEBAL ET estimates were validated with the data from two lysimeters. The discrepancy of obtained ET versus the SEBAL ET estimates (Δ = 0.13 mm day−1, σ = 0.64 mm day−1, NSE = 0.07) indicated that the proposed concept has relatively high accuracy, which is notably higher than the Penman–Monteith interpolated ET estimates (Δ = 1.94 mm day−1, σ = 1.03 mm day−1, NSE = −4.71). It was shown that a total of five images can provide a reliable estimate of interpolated Λ and thus represent specific characteristics of a basin. As the presented concept requires minimum remote sensing data and ground based inputs, it could be applied to estimate basin wide daily ET in data scarce regions and in periods with no satellite images available. View Full-Text
Keywords: evapotranspiration; spatial variability; remote sensing; evaporative fraction evapotranspiration; spatial variability; remote sensing; evaporative fraction

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ivezic, V.; Bekic, D.; Horvat, B. Modelling of Basin Wide Daily Evapotranspiration with a Partial Integration of Remote Sensing Data. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 120.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Atmosphere EISSN 2073-4433 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top