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Open AccessArticle

Quantifying Thermal Stress for Sport Events—The Case of the Olympic Games 2020 in Tokyo

Research Centre Human Biometeorology, Deutscher Wetterdienst, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany
Chair of Environmental Meteorology, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Werthmannstr. 10, D-79085 Freiburg, Germany
Health & Science Department, IAAF. 6-8, Quai Antoine 1er, BP 359, 98000 Monte Carlo, Principality of Monaco
LAMHESS, Université Côte d’Azur, 261 Boulevard du Mercantour, 06205 Nice, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2018, 9(12), 479;
Received: 12 October 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Biometeorology)
The effect of weather on sport events is largely discussed in the sports medicine and exercise physiology context. It is important, both for event organizers and for medical staff, to know whether the competition is happening at a time and place with extreme weather or in general not appropriate weather and climatic conditions. In order to find out, whether a place or time is appropriate, two factors should be included when establishing the effect of atmospheric conditions on visitors and athletes. These are the main climatic conditions, based on long term data, and the quantification of extreme events, like heat waves. The present analysis aims at determining what kind of data are required for an appropriate quantification of weather and climate thermal stress. For the analysis, indices like Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) and mPET (modified PET) are applied. The advantage of these indices is the consideration of both, thermo-physiological and meteorological factors to provide results and information that can be used for decision making. In this paper, we analyzed the Tokyo area with regards to the upcoming Tokyo 2020 Summer Olympic Games. The results show that this kind of event may not be appropriate for visitors, if it is placed during months with extreme conditions. For Tokyo, this is the period from May to September, when conditions cause strong heat stress to the visitors for the vast majority of hours of the day. A more appropriate time would be the months from November to February or the early morning and the late afternoon hours, when thermally comfortable conditions are much more frequent. The methods that are applied here can quantify the thermal conditions and show limitations and possibilities for specific events and locations. Should the organizers still want to have these competitions organized during these months with extreme conditions, they should promote and propose all possible countermeasures for the spectators, workforce, and athletes. View Full-Text
Keywords: sport events; Physiologically Equivalent Temperature; thermal stress; RayMan; Olympic Games; Tokyo sport events; Physiologically Equivalent Temperature; thermal stress; RayMan; Olympic Games; Tokyo
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Matzarakis, A.; Fröhlich, D.; Bermon, S.; Adami, P.E. Quantifying Thermal Stress for Sport Events—The Case of the Olympic Games 2020 in Tokyo. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 479.

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