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Atmosphere 2018, 9(12), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9120460

A Review on the Methods for Observing the Substance and Energy Exchange between Atmosphere Boundary Layer and Free Troposphere

1
Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Qingdao 266237, China
2
School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 22 November 2018
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Abstract

Atmosphere boundary layer (ABL or BL) acts as a pivotal part in the climate by regulating the vertical exchange of moisture, aerosol, trace gases and energy between the earth surface and free troposphere (FT). However, compared with research on the exchange between earth surface and ABL, there are fewer researches on the exchange between ABL and FT, especially when it comes to the quantitative measurement of vertical exchange flux between them. In this paper, a number of various methodologies for investigating the exchange of the substance and energy between ABL and FT are reviewed as follows: (1) methods to obtain entrainment rate, which include method by investigating the height of inversion layer, method of flux-jump, estimating with dataset from the ASTEX Lagrangian Experiments and method of using satellite observations and Microwave Imager; (2) mass budget method, which can yield quantitative measurements of exchange flux between ABL and FT; (3) qualitative measurements: method based on Rayleigh distillation and mixing processes, methods of ground-based remote sensing and airborne tracer-tracer relationship/ratio method. View Full-Text
Keywords: boundary layer; free troposphere; entrainment; exchange boundary layer; free troposphere; entrainment; exchange
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Zhang, H.; Zhou, X.; Zou, J.; Wang, W.; Xue, L.; Ding, Q.; Wang, X.; Zhang, N.; Ding, A.; Sun, J.; Wang, W. A Review on the Methods for Observing the Substance and Energy Exchange between Atmosphere Boundary Layer and Free Troposphere. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 460.

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