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Atmosphere 2018, 9(11), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9110420

Short-Term Association between Black Carbon Exposure and Cardiovascular Diseases in Pakistan’s Largest Megacity

1
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Milken School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA
2
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, 1 University Place, Rensselaer, NY 12144, USA
3
Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201, USA
4
Environmental and Occupational Health & Injuries Unit, Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Karachi 74800, Pakistan
5
Environmental Health, Public Health Department, Ministry of Public Health, Doha 42, Qatar
6
Institute for the Health and the Environment, University at Albany, Albany, NY 12144, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 August 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 22 October 2018 / Published: 26 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impacts of Air Pollution on Human Health)
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Abstract

This study investigated the association between black carbon (BC) exposure and hospital admissions (HAs) and outpatient department/emergency room (OPD/ER) visits for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) among residents of Karachi, the largest city in Pakistan. We measured daily concentrations of BC in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and collected records of HAs and OPD/ER visits for CVD from 2 major tertiary care hospitals serving Karachi for 6 weeks continuously during each quarter over 1 year (August 2008–August 2009). We subsequently analyzed daily counts of hospital and BC data over 0–3 lag days. Daily mean BC concentrations varied from 1 to 32 µg/m3. Results suggest that BC concentrations are associated with CVD HAs and OPD/ER visits. However, associations were generally only observed when modeled with BC from Tibet Center, the commercial-residential site, as compared to Korangi, the industrial-residential site. Overall, low statistical significance suggests that while BC may be a valuable indicator for CVD health risks from combustion-derived particles, further evaluation of the constituents of PM2.5 and their relative contributions to CVD health impacts is necessary. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; environmental exposure; fine particulate matter; black carbon; Pakistan; cardiovascular air pollution; environmental exposure; fine particulate matter; black carbon; Pakistan; cardiovascular
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Malashock, D.; Khwaja, H.A.; Fatmi, Z.; Siddique, A.; Lu, Y.; Lin, S.; Carpenter, D. Short-Term Association between Black Carbon Exposure and Cardiovascular Diseases in Pakistan’s Largest Megacity. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 420.

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