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Atmosphere 2018, 9(10), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9100374

Long-Range Transport of Water Channelized through the Southern Subtropical Jet

1
CLA, IPEN/CNEN-SP, Center for Lasers and Applications, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242, São Paulo 05508-000, Brazil
2
LATMOS/IPSL, UMR8190, UPMC Univ. Paris 06 Sorbonne Universités, UVSQ, CNRS, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris, France
3
OPGC/LaMP, Laboratoire de Météorologie Physique, UMR 6016 Université Clermont Auvergne/CNRS, 63178 Aubière CEDEX, France
4
IFSP, Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo, Rua Pedro Vicente, 625, Canindé, São Paulo 01109-010, Brazil
5
LACy, Laboratoire de l’Atmosphère et des Cyclones, UMR8105, Université de La Réunion, Météo-France, CNRS, 97490 Saint-Denis de La Réunion, France
6
ISAC-CNR, Instituto di Scienze dell’Atmosfera e del Clima, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 00133 Roma, Italy
7
LATMOS/IPSL, UVSQ, Université Paris-Saclay, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, 11 Boulevard d’Alembert, 78280 Guyancourt, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 15 September 2018 / Published: 25 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stratosphere–Troposphere Exchanges)
Full-Text   |   PDF [4879 KB, uploaded 25 September 2018]   |  

Abstract

In this study, an air mass (containing a cirrus cloud) was detected by light detection and ranging (lidar) above São Paulo (Brazil) in June 2007 and tracked around the globe, thanks to Lagrangian calculations as well as ground-based and satellite observations. Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) data were also used to provide locations of occurrence of cirrus around the globe and extract their respective macro physical parameters (altitude and temperature). An analysis of the air mass history based on Lagrangian trajectories reveals that water coming from the Equator is channelized through the southern subtropical jet for weeks. In this case, the back-trajectories showed that the cirrus cloud detected at São Paulo was a mixture of air masses from two different locations: (1) the active convective area located around the Equator, with transport into the upper troposphere that promotes cirrus cloud formation; and (2) the South Pacific Ocean, with transport that follows the subtropical jet stream (STJ). Air masses coming from equatorial convective regions are trapped by the jet, which contributes to maintaining the lifetime of the cirrus cloud for a few days. The cloud disappears near the African continent, due to a southern excursion and warmer temperatures, then reappears and is detected again by the lidar system in São Paulo after 12 days. The observed cloud is located at a similar altitude, revealing that sedimentation is small or compensated by radiative uplift. View Full-Text
Keywords: cirrus; water vapor; subtropical jet cirrus; water vapor; subtropical jet
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Larroza, E.G.; Keckhut, P.; Baray, J.-L.; Nakaema, W.M.; Vérèmes, H.; Landulfo, E.; Dionisi, D.; Khaykin, S.; Ravetta, F. Long-Range Transport of Water Channelized through the Southern Subtropical Jet. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 374.

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