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Improvement in the Modeled Representation of North American Monsoon Precipitation Using a Modified Kain–Fritsch Convective Parameterization Scheme

1
Physical Science and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955, Saudi Arabia
2
Department of Hydrology and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
3
Department of Meteorology, Hanoi University of Science, Hanoi 10000, Vietnam
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2018, 9(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9010031
Received: 26 November 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue WRF Simulations at the Mesoscale: From the Microscale to Macroscale)
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Abstract

A commonly noted problem in the simulation of warm season convection in the North American monsoon region has been the inability of atmospheric models at the meso-β scales (10 s to 100 s of kilometers) to simulate organized convection, principally mesoscale convective systems. With the use of convective parameterization, high precipitation biases in model simulations are typically observed over the peaks of mountain ranges. To address this issue, the Kain–Fritsch (KF) cumulus parameterization scheme has been modified with new diagnostic equations to compute the updraft velocity, the convective available potential energy closure assumption, and the convective trigger function. The scheme has been adapted for use in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF). A numerical weather prediction-type simulation is conducted for the North American Monsoon Experiment Intensive Observing Period 2 and a regional climate simulation is performed, by dynamically downscaling. In both of these applications, there are notable improvements in the WRF model-simulated precipitation due to the better representation of organized, propagating convection. The use of the modified KF scheme for atmospheric model simulations may provide a more computationally economical alternative to improve the representation of organized convection, as compared to convective-permitting simulations at the kilometer scale or a super-parameterization approach. View Full-Text
Keywords: North American monsoon; convective parameterization scheme; regional climate modeling North American monsoon; convective parameterization scheme; regional climate modeling
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Luong, T.M.; Castro, C.L.; Nguyen, T.M.; Cassell, W.W.; Chang, H.-I. Improvement in the Modeled Representation of North American Monsoon Precipitation Using a Modified Kain–Fritsch Convective Parameterization Scheme. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 31.

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