- freely available
Atmosphere 2013, 4(3), 237-253; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos4030237
“In assessing impacts (on crops) and any required adaptation options to abate them, future projections of climate and agricultural systems play an important role. Nonetheless, future outlooks of agricultural production and food security are contingent on the skill of GCMs in reproducing seasonal rainfall and temperatures. Thus, accurate climate change projections are important for developing appropriate and effective adaptation strategies (……). In improving projections, enhancing our understanding of important modes of variability, (……), the responses of plants to (new) environmental factors are key steps to reducing the uncertainties that can potentially constrain adaptation”.
2. Information, Advisories, Services
3. Developments in Indonesia
3.2. Climate Predictions
The seasonal scenario for West Java: “a normal reasonably rainy wet season and a normal start of the dry season that may be expected to be itself normal as well”. andThe seasonal scenario should therefore read: “till April the season is expected to remain normal but could go into the wetter end of the normal range”. andThe seasonal scenario prediction for the farmers then becomes: “The rainy season will continue as normal but might have rains in March/April at the lower end of what is near normal and it may have an early cessation. The dry season may be expected to be dry indeed with possibly a somewhat earlier start”.
3.3. Other Agrometeorological Services (Climate Services for Agriculture)
4. Three Theorems of Agrometeorological Extension to Build New Response Farming
Extension training should start at the institutions that deliver the agrometeorological and agroclimatological products on which advisories and services should be based.
The product intermediaries should in the end train extension intermediaries who work closest with farmers, for the latter intermediaries to be able to deliver advisories and where necessary/possible establish services with farmers in their fields. Science Field Shops can be used to start up such training.
The extension intermediaries that work closest with farmers should deliver advisories and services to farmers and where applicable establish these services with farmers in their fields. Also these intermediaries can first be trained by participation in the Science Field Shops until product intermediaries exist with enough experience and training.
5. Developments in Africa
5.1. When It Started and Beyond
- Adequately address the new decision making and other old and new needs of the farming communities;
- Develop agro-meteorological/-climate products/services with and for farmers;
- Successfully develop and implement new suitable support services for agricultural production (extension, policies, institutions, infrastructure, research, education and training) for their decision making.
5.4. South Africa
6. Discussion, Comparing the Various Results
7. Conclusions and Recommendations
Conflicts of Interest
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|Extension Agrometeorology for an Agrarian Response to Climate Change A Training Guide for Trainers of Agrometeorological Extension Intermediaries in West Africa for Conditions of a Changing Climate|
|PART I. What Can Be Learned From Experience in Other Parts of the World|
|Section I.I. Agrometeorology and Extension Agrometeorology: Further Definitions, Consequences and Use|
|Section I.II. Pitfalls in Extension Agro-Meteorology: Examples from Drought, Wind Erosion and Desertification—Warnings and Combats|
|Section I.III. Reaching Farmers: Agrometeorological Services in a “Farmers First Paradigm” and Attitudes towards Clients|
|Section I.IV. Institutionalization of Educational Extension Commitments: “Science Field Shops” and “Climate Field Schools” for the Establishment of Agroclimatic Services, Using Locally Developed Agrometeorological Products|
|PART II. Considerations of Climate and Society: What Climate Change Means for Farmers in Africa|
|Section II.I. An Introduction from Recent Literature|
|Section II.II. Climate Change, What Does it Mean for Farmers in West Africa?|
|II.II.A. Global Warming|
|II.II.B. Increasing Climate Variability|
|II.II.C. More (and Possibly More Severe) Climate Extremes|
|II.II.D. Contributions from Agriculture in Diminishing Greenhouse Gases|
|PART III. Testing and Evaluation of Cropping/Farming Systems (New or Traditional) and How They Fit into the Presently Increasing Climate Variability and Climate Change|
|- using material from CCAFS: “Recalibrating Food Production in the Developing World: Global Warming Will Change More Than Just the Climate” and|
|CCAFS: “Impacts of Climate Change on the Agricultural and Aquatic Systems and Natural Resources within the CGIAR’s Mandate”|
|PART IV. Identification/Documentation of Further Problem Solving for Decision Making Needed at the Farm Level under African Conditions|
|-- Vulnerability Assessments|
|-- Other Adaptations and Mitigations Needed in African Agriculture|
|-- Agro-ecological Approaches in Formulating and Implementing African Strategies|
|-- Multiple Cropping in Africa|
|-- Crop Rotation in Africa|
|-- Developing a Communication and Problem Identification Strategy at the Farm Level, an Asian Example|
|PART V. Rainfed Farming General Considerations of Extension Issues|
|1. Rainfall characteristics and data analysis|
|2. Biophysical response to weather and climate|
|3. Guides to crop and crop varieties selection|
|4. Guides to crop growth characteristics and yield monitoring|
|5. Microclimate and designs for water conservation|
|6. Pests and disease incidence/control as affected by weather and climate|
|7. Influence of weather and climate on crop selection|
|8. Short range weather forecasting for agriculture: suitability, absorption and use in decision making|
|9. Crop yield models applied in production management|
|10. Scenarios for the growing seasons from simple climate predictions for agriculture|
|PART VI. Irrigation Agriculture General Considerations of Extension Issues|
|1. Crop water requirements and their calculations for water management decision making|
|2. Soil/plant/water relationships|
|3. Pests & diseases incidence/control as affected by weather and climate|
|4. Influence of weather and climate on crop selection|
|5. Short range weather forecasting for agriculture: suitability, absorption and use in decision making|
|6. Crop yield models applied in production management|
|7. Scenarios for the growing seasons from simple climate predictions for agriculture|
|8. Guides to crop and crop varieties selection|
|9. Microclimate and designs for conservation/protection|
|PART VII. Extension for Soil and Crop Protection|
|1. Crop protection from wind (structures and their agrometeorological designs)|
|2. Other crop protection (from heat/sun, frost/cold, floods, high intensity rains and hail as other meteorological hazards)|
|3. Soil protection (structures/agrometeorological designs)|
|4. Crop protection as pest and diseases control and agrometeorological implications|
|PART VIII. Related Matters|
|VIII.I. Extension Experience|
|VIII.II. The Role of Scientists|
|VIII.III.A. Participatory Rural/Land Appraisal|
|VIII.III.B. Participatory Farm Management Methods|
|PART IX. Training Matters Country by Country|
|IX.I. Local Curricula|
|IX.II. ICT Use: Ghana|
|PART X. Input Use Patterns: Ghana|
|PART XI. Innovative Insurance Products for the Adaptation to Climate Change Project: Ghana|
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