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Article

Carbon and Trace Element Compositions of Total Suspended Particles (TSP) and Nanoparticles (PM0.1) in Ambient Air of Southern Thailand and Characterization of Their Sources

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Faculty of Environmental Management, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai 90112, Thailand
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Faculty of Geoscience and Civil Engineering, Institute of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan
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Department of Geography, Faculty of Social Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
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Department of Biology and Environmental Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Zhenbo Wang and Kexin Li
Atmosphere 2022, 13(4), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13040626
Received: 9 March 2022 / Revised: 13 April 2022 / Accepted: 13 April 2022 / Published: 14 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Air Pollution)
The concentration of total suspended particles (TSP) and nanoparticles (PM0.1) over Hat Yai city, Songkhla province, southern Thailand was measured in 2019. Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were evaluated by carbon aerosol analyzer (IMPROVE-TOR) method. Thirteen trace elements including Al, Ba, K, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Ti, Pb, and Zn were evaluated by ICP-OES. Annual average TSP and PM0.1 mass concentrations were determined to be 58.3 ± 7.8 and 10.4 ± 1.2 µg/m3, respectively. The highest levels of PM occurred in the wet season with the corresponding values for the dry seasons being lower. The averaged OC/EC ratio ranged from 3.8–4.2 (TSP) and 2.5–2.7 (PM0.1). The char to soot ratios were constantly less than 1.0 for both TSP and PM0.1, indicating that land transportation is the main emission source. A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that road transportation, industry, and biomass burning are the key sources of these particles. However, PM arising from Indonesian peatland fires causes an increase in the carbon and trace element concentrations in southern Thailand. The findings make useful information for air quality management and strategies for controlling this problem, based on a source apportionment analysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: air quality management; biomass burning; carbon; PCA; PM0.1; trace elements air quality management; biomass burning; carbon; PCA; PM0.1; trace elements
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MDPI and ACS Style

Inerb, M.; Phairuang, W.; Paluang, P.; Hata, M.; Furuuchi, M.; Wangpakapattanawong, P. Carbon and Trace Element Compositions of Total Suspended Particles (TSP) and Nanoparticles (PM0.1) in Ambient Air of Southern Thailand and Characterization of Their Sources. Atmosphere 2022, 13, 626. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13040626

AMA Style

Inerb M, Phairuang W, Paluang P, Hata M, Furuuchi M, Wangpakapattanawong P. Carbon and Trace Element Compositions of Total Suspended Particles (TSP) and Nanoparticles (PM0.1) in Ambient Air of Southern Thailand and Characterization of Their Sources. Atmosphere. 2022; 13(4):626. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13040626

Chicago/Turabian Style

Inerb, Muanfun, Worradorn Phairuang, Phakphum Paluang, Mitsuhiko Hata, Masami Furuuchi, and Prasit Wangpakapattanawong. 2022. "Carbon and Trace Element Compositions of Total Suspended Particles (TSP) and Nanoparticles (PM0.1) in Ambient Air of Southern Thailand and Characterization of Their Sources" Atmosphere 13, no. 4: 626. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13040626

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