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Review

Effects of pH, Total Solids, Temperature and Storage Duration on Gas Emissions from Slurry Storage: A Systematic Review

by 1,2 and 1,*
1
Agro–Environmental Protection Institute, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Tianjin 300191, China
2
Farming Systems Ecology, Wageningen University and Research, 6700 AK Wageningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Marco Ravina, Deborah Panepinto, Laura Valli, Luca D’Angelo and James Lee
Atmosphere 2021, 12(9), 1156; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12091156
Received: 27 July 2021 / Revised: 30 August 2021 / Accepted: 5 September 2021 / Published: 8 September 2021
Gaseous emissions are the main loss pathways of nutrients during dairy slurry storage. In this study, we compiled published data on cumulative ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions from dairy slurry storage and evaluated the integrated effects of slurry pH, total solids (TS), ambient temperature (T) and length of storage (LOS) on emissions using linear mixed effects models. Results showed that the average nitrogen (N) loss by NH3 volatilization from slurry storage was 12.5% of total nitrogen (TN), while the loss by N2O emissions only accounted for 0.05–0.39% of slurry TN. The NH3–N losses were highly related to slurry pH, lowering slurry pH leading to significant decrease of emissions. Temperature also affected NH3–N losses, with higher losses from slurry storage under warm conditions than cold conditions. No significant relationship was observed between NH3–N losses and slurry TS contents within a range from 21–169 g kg−1. The losses of N2O–N from dairy slurry storage were less affected by slurry pH, TS contents and temperature. The carbon (C) loss as CH4 emissions varied from 0.01–17.2% of total carbon (TC). Emissions of CH4–C presented a significant positive relationship with temperature, a negative relationship with slurry TS contents and no significant relationship with slurry pH ranging from 6.6–8.6. Length of storage (more than 30 days) had no significant influence on cumulative gas emissions from slurry storage. This study provides new emission factors of NH3, N2O and CH4 in the percentage of TN or TC from dairy slurry storage. Our results indicate the potential interactive effects of slurry characteristics and storage conditions on gaseous emissions from slurry storage. Farm-scale measurements are needed to accurately estimate nutrient losses from liquid manure storage. View Full-Text
Keywords: ammonia; methane; nitrous oxide; liquid manure storage; manure characteristics; length of storage; nitrogen loss ammonia; methane; nitrous oxide; liquid manure storage; manure characteristics; length of storage; nitrogen loss
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MDPI and ACS Style

Qu, Q.; Zhang, K. Effects of pH, Total Solids, Temperature and Storage Duration on Gas Emissions from Slurry Storage: A Systematic Review. Atmosphere 2021, 12, 1156. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12091156

AMA Style

Qu Q, Zhang K. Effects of pH, Total Solids, Temperature and Storage Duration on Gas Emissions from Slurry Storage: A Systematic Review. Atmosphere. 2021; 12(9):1156. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12091156

Chicago/Turabian Style

Qu, Qingbo, and Keqiang Zhang. 2021. "Effects of pH, Total Solids, Temperature and Storage Duration on Gas Emissions from Slurry Storage: A Systematic Review" Atmosphere 12, no. 9: 1156. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12091156

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