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Article

Impacts of UV Irradiance and Medium-Energy Electron Precipitation on the North Atlantic Oscillation during the 11-Year Solar Cycle

1
Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, 0315 Oslo, Norway
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Norwegian Institute for Air Research, 2007 Kjeller, Norway
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Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
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NORCE Norwegian Research Centre AS, 5008 Bergen, Norway
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Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, 5007 Bergen, Norway
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Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, 5007 Bergen, Norway
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Space and Earth Observation Centre, Finnish Meteorological Institute, 00101 Helsinki, Finland
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Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, University of Oulu, 99600 Sodankylä, Finland
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Department of Physics, University of Otago, Dunedin 9016, New Zealand
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British Antarctic Survey (UKRI-NERC), Cambridge BIQQ 1ZZ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yuichi Otsuka
Atmosphere 2021, 12(8), 1029; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12081029
Received: 2 July 2021 / Revised: 3 August 2021 / Accepted: 6 August 2021 / Published: 11 August 2021
Observational studies suggest that part of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) variability may be attributed to the spectral ultra-violet (UV) irradiance variations associated to the 11-year solar cycle. The observed maximum surface pressure response in the North Atlantic occurs 2–4 years after solar maximum, and some model studies have identified that atmosphere–ocean feedbacks explain the multi-year lag. Alternatively, medium-to-high energy electron (MEE) precipitation, which peaks in the declining phase of the solar cycle, has been suggested as a potential cause of this lag. We use a coupled (ocean–atmosphere) climate prediction model and a state-of-the-art MEE forcing to explore the respective roles of irradiance and MEE precipitation on the NAO variability. Three decadal ensemble experiments were conducted over solar cycle 23 in an idealized setting. We found a weak ensemble-mean positive NAO response to the irradiance. The simulated signal-to-noise ratio remained very small, indicating the predominance of internal NAO variability. The lack of multi-annual lag in the NAO response was likely due to lagged solar signals imprinted in temperatures below the oceanic mixed-layer re-emerging equatorward of the oceanic frontal zones, which anchor ocean–atmosphere feedbacks. While there is a clear, yet weak, signature from UV irradiance in the atmosphere and upper ocean over the North Atlantic, enhanced MEE precipitation on the other hand does not lead to any systematic changes in the stratospheric circulation, despite its marked chemical signatures. View Full-Text
Keywords: 11-year solar cycle; energetic particle precipitation; North Atlantic Oscillation; climate models 11-year solar cycle; energetic particle precipitation; North Atlantic Oscillation; climate models
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MDPI and ACS Style

Guttu, S.; Orsolini, Y.; Stordal, F.; Otterå, O.H.; Omrani, N.-E.; Tartaglione, N.; Verronen, P.T.; Rodger, C.J.; Clilverd, M.A. Impacts of UV Irradiance and Medium-Energy Electron Precipitation on the North Atlantic Oscillation during the 11-Year Solar Cycle. Atmosphere 2021, 12, 1029. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12081029

AMA Style

Guttu S, Orsolini Y, Stordal F, Otterå OH, Omrani N-E, Tartaglione N, Verronen PT, Rodger CJ, Clilverd MA. Impacts of UV Irradiance and Medium-Energy Electron Precipitation on the North Atlantic Oscillation during the 11-Year Solar Cycle. Atmosphere. 2021; 12(8):1029. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12081029

Chicago/Turabian Style

Guttu, Sigmund, Yvan Orsolini, Frode Stordal, Odd Helge Otterå, Nour-Eddine Omrani, Nazario Tartaglione, Pekka T. Verronen, Craig J. Rodger, and Mark A. Clilverd. 2021. "Impacts of UV Irradiance and Medium-Energy Electron Precipitation on the North Atlantic Oscillation during the 11-Year Solar Cycle" Atmosphere 12, no. 8: 1029. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12081029

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