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Article

Evaluating the Impact of a Wall-Type Green Infrastructure on PM10 and NOx Concentrations in an Urban Street Environment

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ENEA, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, SSTP-MET-INAT, 40129 Bologna, Italy
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ENEA, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, SSTP-MET-INAT, 21017 Ispra, Italy
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ARIANET S.r.l., Via Gilino n.9, 20128 Milano, Italy
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Istituto di Scienze dell’Atmosfera e del Clima, ISAC-CNR, 73100 Lecce, Italy
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Istituto di Scienze dell’Atmosfera e del Clima, ISAC-CNR, 40129 Bologna, Italy
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ENEA, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, TERIN-PSU-ABI, 40129 Bologna, Italy
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PROAMBIENTE S.c.r.l., CNR Research Area, 40129 Bologna, Italy
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Green City Solutions GmbH, 15741 Bestensee, Germany
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Rafael Borge
Atmosphere 2021, 12(7), 839; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12070839
Received: 29 April 2021 / Revised: 11 June 2021 / Accepted: 28 June 2021 / Published: 29 June 2021
Nature-based solutions can represent beneficial tools in the field of urban transformation for their contribution to important environmental services such as air quality improvement. To evaluate the impact on urban air pollution of a CityTree (CT), an innovative wall-type green infrastructure in passive (deposition) and active (filtration) modes of operation, a study was conducted in a real urban setting in Modena (Italy) during 2017 and 2018, combining experimental measurements with modelling system evaluations. In this work, relying on the computational resources of CRESCO (Computational Centre for Research on Complex Systems)/ENEAGRID High Performance Computing infrastructure, we used the air pollution microscale model PMSS (Parallel Micro-SWIFT-Micro SPRAY) to simulate air quality during the experimental campaigns. The spatial characteristics of the impact of the CT on local air pollutants concentrations, specifically nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM10), were assessed. In particular, we used prescribed bulk deposition velocities provided by the experimental campaigns, which tested the CT both in passive (deposition) and in active (filtration) mode of operation. Our results showed that the PM10 and NOx concentration reductions reach from more than 0.1% up to about 0.8% within an area of 10 × 20 m2 around the infrastructure, when the green infrastructure operates in passive mode. In filtration mode the CT exhibited higher performances in the abatement of PM10 concentrations (between 1.5% and 15%), within approximately the same area. We conclude that CTs may find an application in air quality hotspots within specific urban settings (i.e., urban street canyons) where a very localized reduction of pollutants concentration during rush hours might be of interest to limit population exposure. The optimization of the spatial arrangement of CT modules to increment the “clean air zone” is a factor to be investigated in the ongoing development of the CT technology. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban air pollution; nature-based solutions; green infrastructure; PMSS Lagrangian model; NOx; PM10 urban air pollution; nature-based solutions; green infrastructure; PMSS Lagrangian model; NOx; PM10
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MDPI and ACS Style

Villani, M.G.; Russo, F.; Adani, M.; Piersanti, A.; Vitali, L.; Tinarelli, G.; Ciancarella, L.; Zanini, G.; Donateo, A.; Rinaldi, M.; Carbone, C.; Decesari, S.; Sänger, P. Evaluating the Impact of a Wall-Type Green Infrastructure on PM10 and NOx Concentrations in an Urban Street Environment. Atmosphere 2021, 12, 839. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12070839

AMA Style

Villani MG, Russo F, Adani M, Piersanti A, Vitali L, Tinarelli G, Ciancarella L, Zanini G, Donateo A, Rinaldi M, Carbone C, Decesari S, Sänger P. Evaluating the Impact of a Wall-Type Green Infrastructure on PM10 and NOx Concentrations in an Urban Street Environment. Atmosphere. 2021; 12(7):839. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12070839

Chicago/Turabian Style

Villani, Maria Gabriella, Felicita Russo, Mario Adani, Antonio Piersanti, Lina Vitali, Gianni Tinarelli, Luisella Ciancarella, Gabriele Zanini, Antonio Donateo, Matteo Rinaldi, Claudio Carbone, Stefano Decesari, and Peter Sänger. 2021. "Evaluating the Impact of a Wall-Type Green Infrastructure on PM10 and NOx Concentrations in an Urban Street Environment" Atmosphere 12, no. 7: 839. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12070839

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